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Quick Guide to Research in Alsace

2020.09.10 02:37 JaimieMcEvoy Quick Guide to Research in Alsace

I posted this in response to a question, and thought it deserved its own post.
If you have an interest in doing research for Alsace, I suggest sooner rather than later, as the two departments, Bas-Rhin and Haut-Rhin, are going to be combined into the European Collectivity of Alsace on 1 January 2020. It's possible that there might be disruption of the archives and their websites.
Quick Guide to Research – Department of Bas-Rhin, France
(Department of Haut-Rhin is below, but read through this section as well, as much of the same still applies).
In France, genealogical records are kept in the department archives.
Think of departments as something like a local state or province.
There are 96 departments in European France, plus five overseas departments.
Alsace is currently divided into two departments.
Bas-Rhin in the north (referring to the lower Rhine River).
Haut-Rhin in the south.
Note that on 1 January 2021, the two departments will be combined into the European Collectivity of Alsace. I don’t have any information on what will happen then with the two departmental archives and their websites.
Vital records and census records in France are kept in each departmental archive.
Sometimes a department archive will have other genealogical records, sometimes things like military, hospital, criminal, notarial or education records. These are typically not online, and you will have to inquire directly as to which records are available, and request copies.
The records in the archives are organized by commune, which can be a city, town or village. These records are recorded by the commune originally, so you will need to know your communes of interest.
The Archives départementales du Bas-Rhin has an excellent online website for genealogy:
http://archives.bas-rhin.f
To see the site in English, just right click on any web page to bring up a pop up menu, then select “Translate to English.”
On the front page you will see some links.
REGISTRES/REGISTERS
Registres paroissiaux et docoments d’état civil. Parish registers and state civil records.
This will take you to the Adeloch application. Simply enter the name of your commune to see which records are available: http://archives.bas-rhin.fregistres-paroissiaux-et-documents-d-etat-civil/
You will see boxes at the bottom for two types of records:
Registres parroissiaux (avant 1789). Parish registers (before 1789), Roman Catholic.
Tables décennales. Decade tables. These were indexes that were made every ten years, and you may wish to start with these, then go to the parish or civil registers.
Registres d’état civil. Civil registers.
The archives also holds the records for Lutheran churches and Jewish congregations.
Here is a table of the religious records held, alphabetically by commune:
http://archives.bas-rhin.fmedia/96780/2G0Tabledesparoissesdef.pdf
You will see in each category what looks like little books.
It will start with the tables, think of them as indexes.
TD = Tables des décès = Tables of deaths.
TN = Tables des naissances = Tables of births.
TM = Tables des mariages = Tables of marriages.
Move along the timeline to get to the actual parish registers.
N = Registre des naissances = Register of births.
If you click on a record, conditions of use will pop up. Just click on the bottom, “Accepter” to accept.
PM = Registre de publication de mariages = Register of publication of marriages, what we call in English banns of marriage, or announcements made before the marriage.
M = Registre de marriage = Register of marriages, the actual marriage records.
D = Registre de décès = Register of deaths.
If a book is ghosted and says “En deficit” when you hover over it, it means the book is lost, destroyed, or does not exist.
A quick note about the French Republican Calendar. You will see things like “An X.” That means, “Year Ten.”
From late 1793 to 1805, (and for 18 days in Paris in 1871 during the Paris Commune revolt) France changed its calendar. Year 1 is the official first year of the Republic. Not only the years, but days, weeks and months were all changed. Officially taking over with Year One from the old calendar on 22 September 1792, the calendar was not actually adopted until 1793.
Republican Calendar had 12 months.
Each month divided into three weeks of ten days each, each week called a décade.
Five or six extra days, called complementery days, were simply added at the end of the year to match the solar year.
You can look up French Republican Calendar on Wikipedia to learn more, but this is all you need to know to understand the records. There is also a list of months, and what dates they roughly correspond to the common Gregorian calendar, as well as the names of the ten days of the week.
Weeks as we know them returned to use in 1802, and the months and years returned to the use of the Gregorian calendar at the end of 1805.
There is also a rough conversion table for the years in the Wikipedia article.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_Republican_calendar
RECENSEMENTS DE POPULATION/CENSUS RECORDS
This will take you to the Ellenbach application. When you click, it opens a search page where you enter your commune of interest. It is here: http://archives.bas-rhin.frecensements-population/
These are not indexed, but most communes are small. You will have to read through a census to find your people.
OTHER INFO
If you ever actually go to the departmental archives, be aware that the staff only speak French, with perhaps a tiny bit of English. You would be best to make your inquiries from afar first to understand what records exist and get copies that way. I advise against sending a letter or email in English, as there may be no one who could read it on the other end. Google Translate is your friend if you can not write in French, just make one of the first sentences "Apologies that I can not write in French, this is translated using Google Translate." That will help the reader avoid confusion and understand if they see irregularities, and your effort will be appreciated.
But ultimately, you may wish to travel and see original documents. Sometimes that is allowed and sometimes not, so find out what originals you can view before visiting. I found the staff friendly and helpful, and proud of the online offerings they have created, but not necessarily realizing what other records might be of interest to a genealogist.
Please also note that facilities may be closed or restricted due to the pandemic. And if you only have two weeks of vacation, and have to quarantine for two weeks when you arrive in France…well, now is a more important time than ever to be an informed traveller.
Here is the Bas-Rhin departmental archives advice page for genealogists. Remember to right-click on the page and select, “Translate to English”: http://archives.bas-rhin.fgenealogiste/
Facebook group, Alsace and Lorraine Genealogy: https://www.facebook.com/groups/alsace.genealogy
The French Genealogy Blog, in my opinion the best blog about genealogy research in France. Here is the entry on The Peculiarities of Alsace for Genealogists:
https://french-genealogy.typepad.com/genealogie/2009/06/alsace-genealogy.html
Cercle Genealogique d’Alsace, Genealogical Circle of Alsace, a genealogy society.
http://www.alsace-genealogie.com/
Familles d’Alsace du Nord (FAN) Généalogie, a genealogy society.
http://fan-genealogie.org/
German letters: http://fan-genealogie.org/index.php/allemand-francais-latin-gothique
FamilySearch Wiki for Bas-Rhin:
https://www.familysearch.org/wiki/en/Bas-Rhin,_France_Genealogy
German Genealogical Word List: https://www.familysearch.org/wiki/en/German_Genealogical_Word_List
French Genealogical Word List:
https://www.familysearch.org/wiki/en/French_Genealogical_Word_List
List of communes of Bas-Rhin:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communes_of_the_Bas-Rhin_department
Note that the name of communes may have been spelled differently during the German period of 1871-1918, when commune names were changed by the German government. For example, Climbach became Klimbach. Search for a commune on French Wikipedia, and it will also show you the Germanized name from that period.
https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/results?count=100&placeId=82342&query=%2Bplace%3A%22France%2C%20Bas-Rhin%22
Finally, I will add that many communes have a history book. Contact their commune administrations to find out if they have one. Note that they will be in French.
French Wikipedia: https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikip%C3%A9dia:Accueil_principal
Note that French Wikipedia is NOT just a translation of English Wikipedia, and will have longer entries on any topic to do with France.
Most communes will have an entry. You can then use the “Translate to English” to get a translation (which are not always perfect, but close).
Each commune has a coat of arms, which is usually depicted on its Wikipedia page.
Jaimie McEvoy
9 September 2020
ADDITION – Haut-Rhin Research
Have a read about Bas-Rhin, above, much of which also applies to Haut-Rhin.
List of communes of Haut-Rhin:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communes_of_the_Haut-Rhin_department
Department of Haut-Rhin archives:
http://www.archives.haut-rhin.fsearch/home
Parish and civil registers: http://www.archives.haut-rhin.fsearch?preset=44&view=list
The departmental archives of Haut-Rhin does have parish and civil registers online, as per link above. The only France census online for Haut-Rhin is for 1866, the last census before the German annexation from 1871 to 1918. If you want to see other census records, you will have to inquire to the Haut-Rhin departmental archives directly, and sometimes a commune will have their own copy still and might be willing to have a look. If you ever contact a commune, note that there is sometimes zero capacity to deal with written English, so use Google Translate if you don't know the language.
FamilySearch Wiki for Haut-Rhin: https://www.familysearch.org/wiki/en/Haut-Rhin,_France_Genealogy
FamilySearch catalogue for Haut-Rhin:
https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/results?count=100&placeId=90407&query=%2Bplace%3A%22France%2C%20Haut-Rhin%22&subjectsOpen=526849-50,554163-50
Jaimie McEvoy
9 September 2020
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2020.09.07 04:53 StevenStevens43 The flood

Amber road(s):
In another thread, i showed how Irish mythology is consistant with contemporary historical understanding.
Therefore, you should open the link below, and read that article first, before continuing to read this one.
Amber road(s)
Partholon:
Now, it was not only Slain mac Dela, who was credited with leading the Fir-bolg back to Ireland.
Slain mac Dela was only "the first" to arrive back in Ireland.
But there was in fact three groups that arrived back in Ireland, at different times.
Partholon and his group were the second to arrive.
However, unlike Slain, who is credited with leading a group of Fir-bolg back to Ireland at the same time as the Israelites being expelled from Egypt. Partholon is credited with leading a group of Fir-Bolg back to Ireland 300 years after the flood.
So, does the flood correspond perfectly with the Hyksos?
Let us find out.
Legend
Partholón was the leader of the second group of people to settle in Ireland, the 'Muintir Partholóin' (People of Partholón). They arrived on the uninhabited island about 300 years after Noah's Flood and were believed responsible for introducing activities such as farming, cooking, brewing and building. After some years, they all succumbed to plague) in one week.
Zuisudra:
Zuisudra is the last pre deluvian Sumerian king, before the flood destroyed his kingdom of Kish, in 2900 BC.
Zuisudra
Ziusudra (Sumerian: 𒍣𒌓𒋤𒁺 ZI.UD.SUD.RA2 Ziudsuřa(k) "life of long days"; Greek: Ξίσουθρος, translit. Xisuthros) or Zin-Suddu (Sumerian: 𒍣𒅔𒋤𒁺 ZI.IN.SUD.DU) of Shuruppak (c. 2900 BC) is listed in the WB-62 Sumerian king list recension as the last king of Sumer prior to the Great Flood.
Factual event:
Archaeologists now believe Zuisudra to have been a factual king, as radio-carbon dating does indeed prove that Kish was likely destroyed by a flood around 2900 BC.
Shurrupak
The city of Kish) flourished in the Early Dynastic period) soon after a river flood archaeologically attested by sedimentary strata at Shuruppak (modern Tell Fara), Uruk, Kish, and other sites, all of which have been radiocarbon dated to ca. 2900 BC.[6] Polychrome pottery from the Jemdet Nasr period (ca. 30th century BC), which immediately preceded the Early Dynastic I period, was discovered directly below the Shuruppak flood stratum.[6][7] The appearance of Ziusudra's name on the WB-62 king list therefore links the flood mentioned in the three surviving Babylonian deluge epics—the Eridu Genesis, the Epic of Gilgamesh, and the Epic of Atra-Hasis
Bubastis:
The flood was likely caused by the earthquake in Egypt that caused many deaths in Egypt, in 2890BC..
Reign
The ancient Egyptian historian Manetho called Hotepsekhemwy Boëthôs (apparently altered from the name Bedjau) and reported that during this ruler's reign "a chasm opened near Bubastis and many perished". Although Manetho wrote in the 3rd century BC – over two millennia after the king's actual reign – some Egyptologists think it possible that this anecdote may have been based on fact, since the region near Bubastis is known to be seismically active.[5]
So that is perfection?:
How is it perfection? If Partholon arrived back in Ireland 300 years after the Sumerian flood, that would make his arrival 2600 BC.
How would that make him arriving back in Ireland after Slain mac Dela?
Easy, the flood being mentioned in Irish mythology is not the same flood as mentioned in Sumerian tablets.
Sobekhotep VIII(16 years, 1645-1629 BC)
The flood spoken about in Irish mythology, would be referring to the flood were Sobekhotep VIII waded through water and ordered the waters to recede.
Attestation
According to Egyptologist John Baines), who studied the stela in detail, by coming to the temple as it was flooded, the king reenacted the Egyptian story of the creation of the world in imitating the actions of the creator god Amun-Ra, to which the stela iconography closely associates the king, ordering the waters to recede from around the primordial mount.[5]
Hyksos:
Of course, Sobekhotep was a Pharoah of the Hyksos, and therefore he was a foreigner from Canaan, that knew nothing about Egypt, and he thought this was a catastrophy.
Chronological position
In his reconstruction of the chronology of the Second Intermediate Period, Ryholt proposes that Sobekhotep VIII reigned from 1645 BC until 1629 BC, shortly after the Hyksos 15th Dynasty took over the Nile Delta and the city of Memphis, thereby precipitating the collapse of the 13th Dynasty.
Martyrs finger:
However, the Hyksos truly believed that the waters receded because Sobekhotep VIII ordered the waters to recede.
However, the Martyrs finger is a yearly flood event in Egypt that happened during the monsoon season.
Native Egyptians celebrated this event for two weeks on August 15th every year.
Flooding of the Nile
The flooding of the Nile (Arabic: عيد وفاء النيل‎, romanized: eid wafae al-nayl) has been an important natural cycle in Egypt since ancient times. It is celebrated by Egyptians as an annual holiday for two weeks starting August 15, known as Wafaa El-Nil. It is also celebrated in the Coptic Church by ceremonially throwing a martyr's relic into the river, hence the name, The Martyr's Finger
Flood cycle:
Native egyptians did not bother to let the Hyksos know they had set up station directly in the path of the yearly monsoon.
Flood cycle
The flooding of the Nile is the result of the yearly monsoon between May and August causing enormous precipitations on the Ethiopian Highlands whose summits reach heights of up to 4550 m (14,928 ft). Most of this rainwater is taken by the Blue Nile and by the Atbarah River into the Nile, while a less important amount flows through the Sobat and the White Nile into the Nile. During this short period, those rivers contribute up to ninety percent of the water of the Nile and most of the sedimentation carried by it, but after the rainy season, dwindle to minor rivers.
These facts were unknown to the ancient Egyptians who could only observe the rise and fall of the Nile waters.
Summary:
Therefore, Irish mythology would likely be referring to the August 15th flood of 1645 BC, arriving back in Ireland in 1345 BC, 69 years after Slain mac Dela.
Hapi:
Hapi)
Hapi was the god of the annual flooding of the Nile in ancient Egyptian religion. The flood deposited rich silt (fertile soil) on the river's banks, allowing the Egyptians to grow crops.[1]#citenote-Wilkinson_106-1) Hapi was greatly celebrated among the Egyptians. Some of the titles of Hapi were "Lord of the Fish and Birds of the Marshes" and "Lord of the River Bringing Vegetation". Hapi is typically depicted as an androgynous figure with a big belly and large drooping breasts, wearing a loincloth and ceremonial false beard.[[2]](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hapi(Nile_god)#cite_note-Wilkinson_107-2)

Anthropology:
After many years of archaeologists dismissing Irish mythology, Scientific anthropologists conducted genetic studies, and found 84% of Irish peoples carry strong Iberian genes.
Of course, every single Irish mythological fir-bolg return story, always includes a stop in the once supposedly Irish owned kingdom of Iberia
Emergence of Celtic Ireland
In 2012, research showed that occurrence of genetic markers for the earliest farmers was almost eliminated by Beaker-culture immigrants: they carried what was then a new Y-chromosome R1b marker, believed to have originated in Iberia about 2500 BC. The prevalence amongst modern Irish men of this mutation is a remarkable 84%,

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2020.09.03 02:09 StevenStevens43 The Old world

The Old world
Old world:
The old world, was a term coined to depict the unified civilization of Afro-Eurasia. Or at least, the concept.
Old world
The term "Old World" is used commonly in the West to refer to Africa, Asia and Europe (Afro-Eurasia or the World Island)
Old world
Old world
Indus Valley civilization:
The early Southern roots for this Old world, began to develop at the dawn of the Indus Valley civilization, around 4500 BC, when the Indus began to spread out, and formed contemporaneous relationships with Africans and Asiatics.
India
By 4,500 BCE, settled life had spread more widely,[2] and began to gradually evolve into the Indus Valley Civilization, an early civilization of the Old world, which was contemporaneous with Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia.
Dravidian language:
When the Indus began to spread out, they spoke Dravidic
Proto-Dravidian
As a proto-language, the Proto-Dravidian language is not itself attested in the historical record. Its modern conception is based solely on reconstruction. It was suggested in the 1980s that the language was spoken in the 4th millennium BCE, and started disintegrating into various branches around 3rd millennium BCE.
Indo-Aryan
Between 2589–2566 BC, Khufu the Pharoah would find himself in an Indo-Aryan partnership with his vizier Ankhhaf.
Khufu
Khufu (/ˈkuːfuː/, full name Khnum Khufu (/ˈknuːm ˈkuːfuː/), known to the ancient Greeks as Cheops) was an ancient Egyptian monarch who was the second pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty,
Link for photo.jpg)
Khufu
Ankhhaf:
And Ankhhaf was Khufus vizier. Ankhhaf was also the son of a previous Pharoah named Sneferu.
Family
Ankhhaf was a son of pharaoh Sneferu and an unknown wife.[2] Ankhhaf's tomb in Giza (G 7510) depicts his sister-wife Princess Hetepheres.
Link for photo
Ankhhaf
Racist remarks by Sneferu:
I would like to deviate just a second, to point to some remarks made by Ankhhafs father. Sneferu.
The remarks were made while Sneferu was invading Nubia in order to acquire slaves to build the pyramid of Giza.
Not sure the remark is necessarily racist, but certainly telling.
Foreign relations
Raid in the Land of the Blacks, and the bringing in of seven thousandprisoners, men and women, and twenty thousand cattle, sheep, andgoats...
Indus Valley golden age:
This period, around 2500 BC, coincided with the Indus Valley golden age.
History of India
This civilization flourished between 2,500 BCE and 1900 BCE in what today is Pakistan and north-western India and was noted for its urban planning, baked brick houses, elaborate drainage, and water supply.
Gu-Edin:
Now a very interesting story develops out of Baked brick houses. The story originates in Gu-Edin, in Sumer.
Gu-Edin
Gu-Edin (also transcribed "Gu'edena" or "Guedena") was a fertile plain in Sumer, in modern-day Iraq. It lay between Umma and Lagash, and claims made on it by each side were a cause of war.[1] Argument over the territory continued for around 150 years.[2]
Link to photo
Gu-Edin
Semitic Akkadians:
And someone has added the word "Semitic Akkadians" on the top left hand corner of this map.
I have already covered elsewhere, that the Sumerians referred to themselves as black headed people, and Akkadian was not even a Semitic language. It was the language spoken by the Mesopotamians that conquered the Sumerians in 2300 BC when Sargon of Akkad conquered Sumer. And the Akkadian language evolved in to the Semitic language, mergining components from both the Akkadian language, and the Sumerian language.
However, just because the Semitic language adopted certain Sumerian components, this is no way makes the Kishite language, that was the Sumerian language, Semitic.
However you will find this information complete with links on other threads. (I may come back later and produce a link to what thread this information can be found).
Link for above
Back to Gu-Edin:
Gu-Edin was conquered by a warlord named Eannatum
Reign of Eannatum
It is recorded on the Stele of the Vultures that Gu-Edin was pillaged by a later (énsi)) of Umma, who ruled that city on behalf of its god Shara), and whose name, according to the Cone of Enmetena,[a] was Ush. Gu-Edin had been claimed by the énsi of Lagash, Eannatum
Eannatum:
Eannatum was an Ensi, which pretty much translates to Vizier, around 2500 BC, and written records would pretty much record him as being one of the worlds first known emperors (even though we know there were earlier emperors by some considerable margin).
Eannatum
Eannatum (Sumerian: 𒂍𒀭𒈾𒁺 É.AN.NA-tum2) was a Sumerian Ensi) (ruler or king) of Lagash circa 2500–2400 BCE. He established one of the first verifiable empires in history: he subdued Elam and destroyed the city of Susa as well as several other Iranian cities, and extended his domain to Sumer and Akkad).
Ensi:
And an Ensi is not truly an emperor. An Ensi is simply a king of a principality, and is a vassal for an emperor. An ensi is more similar to a Nomarch, than a monarch.
Ensi)
Ensi (cuneiform: 𒑐𒋼𒋛 pa).te).si) Sumerian: ensik, "lord of the plowland"; Emesal dialect: umunsik; Akkadian: iššakkum)[1]#citenote-1)[[2]](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ensi(Sumerian)#cite_note-2) was a Sumerian title designating the ruler or prince of a city-state. Originally it may have designated an independent ruler, but in later periods the title presupposed subordinance to a lugal.
Brick of Eannatum:
However what is interesting about the baked brick houses, comes from the brick of Eannatum, where Eannatum is credited with making a well out of baked bricks for his lover Ningirsu.
Brick of Eannatum
Eannatum, the ensi) of Lagash, who was granted might by Enlil, who constantly is nourished by Ninhursag with her milk, whose name Ningirsu had pronounced, who was chosen by Nanshe in her heart, the son of Akurgal, the ensi of Lagash, conquered the land of Elam, conquered Urua, conquered Umma, conquered Ur. At that time, he built a well made of baked bricks for Ningirsu, in his wide temple courtyard. Eananatum's god is Shulutula. Then did Ningirsu love Eannatum".
Link for photo
Brick of Eannatum
Jushur:
So what does this all mean? Who is Eannatum? If Eannatum was Sumerian already, and a black headed one already, why would he need to be conquering cities in Sumer?
The answer to this lies in the Sumerian king list.
The first "post deluvian" Sumerian king of Kish was Jushur.
Jushur
Jushur (cuneiform: 𒄑𒃡 ĜIŠ.UR3; Sumerian: Ĝušur) was the first king of the first dynasty of Kish) according to the Sumerian king list. It claims he reigned in Sumer for 1,200 years as the first post-diluvian king.[1]
Link for photo.jpg)
Sumerian king list
Cattle count:
And those ridiculous years attributed to those kings, such as 1200, gives the impression that those were simply mythological kings.
However there were no calender years in those days. Instead a year was judged by the cattle count.
Basically, the tax year.
Jushur lived for a period of 1200 tax years. Not annual years.
Cattle count
In ancient Egypt, the cattle count was one of the two main means of evaluating the amount of taxes to be levied, the other one being the height of the annual inundation. A very important economic event, the cattle count was controlled by high officials, and was connected to several cultic feasts. In addition it served as a means of dating other events, with the entire year when it occurred being called "year of the Xth cattle count under the person of the king Y".
Ziusudra:
However, if we carry on past Jushur, we learn that there was a previous Sumerian king list that was destroyed by a cataclysm which occurred in this area around 2,900 BC and it destroyed Sumer, and probably also badly effected surrounding regions.
This would explain why, Eannatum was having to reconquer Sumerian lands, since 4000 BC.
It is also likely that Ziusudra, is "Zeus".
Ziusudra
Ziusudra (Sumerian: 𒍣𒌓𒋤𒁺 ZI.UD.SUD.RA2 Ziudsuřa(k) "life of long days"; Greek: Ξίσουθρος, translit. Xisuthros) or Zin-Suddu (Sumerian: 𒍣𒅔𒋤𒁺 ZI.IN.SUD.DU) of Shuruppak (c. 2900 BC) is listed in the WB-62 Sumerian king list recension as the last king of Sumer prior to the Great Flood. He is subsequently recorded as the hero of the Sumerian creation myth and appears in the writings of Berossus as Xisuthros.
Earthquake:
The cataclysm was likely a major flood caused by the earthquake in Bubastist in around 2890 BC.
Reign
The ancient Egyptian historian Manetho called Hotepsekhemwy Boëthôs (apparently altered from the name Bedjau) and reported that during this ruler's reign "a chasm opened near Bubastis and many perished". Although Manetho wrote in the 3rd century BC – over two millennia after the king's actual reign – some Egyptologists think it possible that this anecdote may have been based on fact, since the region near Bubastis is known to be seismically active.[5]
Indo-Aryan tribes:
Now it is important to understand, that at this point in time, there was no such thing as Indo-European.
At this point in time, it was Indo-Aryan.
It is also likely that this Cataclysm led to the destruction, of not only Sumer, but also the Indus Valley civilization which suffered famine and drought.
It appears that Indo-Aryan tribes took advantage of this, and invaded India.
Though, many (at least half) of the Indo-Aryans invading India, would of course have been descended from Dravidic speakers in the first place, back before they left India for Egypt.
History of India
In the early second millennium BCE, persistent drought caused the population of the Indus Valley to scatter from large urban centres to villages. Around the same time, Indo-Aryan tribes moved into the Punjab from regions further northwest in several waves of migration. The resulting Vedic period was marked by the composition of the Vedas,
Indo-Aryan culture:
From this invasion, Indus Valley would slowly adopt a new culture.
Religions such as Hinduism would emerge.
More Indian history
large collections of hymns of these tribes whose postulated religious culture, through synthesis with the preexisting religious cultures of the subcontinent, gave rise to Hinduism.
Battle of the ten kings:
Though there would also be wars, as not all Indians would welcome this invasion.
Historical events
The battle took place during the middle or main Rigvedic period,[4] near the Ravi River in Punjab. It was a battle between the Puru) Vedic Aryan tribal kingdoms of the Bharatas),
Maghadan culture:
But slowly a new culture would form in India, and the Maghadan culture would slowly evolve to become regarded as Indias indigenous culture.
The culture would also see many Scientific and academical achievements, and a new golden age.
Maghada
Magadha was an ancient Indian kingdom in southern Bihar, and was counted as one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas, 'Great Countries' of ancient India. Magadha played an important role in the development of Jainism and Buddhism, and two of India's greatest empires, the Maurya Empire and Gupta Empire, originated in Magadha.
The Mauryan Empire and Gupta Empire, both of which originated in Magadha, saw advancements in ancient India's science, mathematics, astronomy, religion, and philosophy and were considered the Golden Age of India.
Link to photo
Maghadan expansion
Maghadan men:
Many men would become Maghadan men.
Buddha, for example, was regarded as a Maghada man.
History
Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, lived much of his life in the kingdom of Magadha.
Indigenous non Maghadans:
Indians that considered themselves indigenous, and non Aryan, actually did not welcome Buddha, because he was a maghada man, spreading Indo-Aryan
Historical context
One of Gautama's usual names was "Sakamuni" or "Sakyamunī" ("Sage of the Shakyas"). This and the evidence of the early texts suggests that he was born into the Shakya clan, a community that was on the periphery, both geographically and culturally, of the eastern Indian subcontinent in the 5th century BCE.[66] The community was either a small republic, or an oligarchy. His father was an elected chieftain, or oligarch.[66] Bronkhorst calls this eastern culture Greater Magadha and notes that "Buddhism and Jainism arose in a culture which was recognized as being non-Vedic".[67]
The Shakyas were an eastern sub-Himalayan ethnic group who were considered outside of the Āryāvarta and of ‘mixed origin’ (saṃkīrṇa-yonayaḥ, possibly part Aryan and part indigenous). The laws of Manu treats them as being non Aryan. As noted by Levman, "The Baudhāyana-dharmaśāstra (1.1.2.13–4) lists all the tribes of Magadha as being outside the pale of the Āryāvarta; and just visiting them required a purificatory sacrifice as expiation" (In Manu 10.11, 22).[68]
Link for photo
Meghadan early roots
Indo-European:
In reality however, Hinduism was already Indo-Aryan.
What Buddha was introducing, was Indo-European, which was evolving out of the clash between Dravidian and Indo-Aryan.
submitted by StevenStevens43 to AhrensburgCulture [link] [comments]


2020.09.02 16:22 orangutanA1 USSR and the Gulag, analysis and work are from our comrade u/Jmlsky.

USSR and the Gulag:
First of all, let's break the norms and put here my resources. I exclude Werth because it's thru numerous work that I will quote him, and you'll find all of them in the section resources of the main Wikipedia article. So here's what I'll use, with the addition of the famous antisoviet historian Werth.
Sources:
Anne Applebaum, Goulag : Une histoire, 2005
Nikolaï Feodorovitch Bugaï, Goda 30-40 : narodov SSSR deportatsii kvoprosu [La question de la déportation des peuples de l'URSS dans les années 1930 et 1940], revue Istoriia SSSR no 6, 1989;
Jean Radvanyi, La Nouvelle Russie, Collection U, Armand Colin, 2004, 3e édition mise à jour, page 58, arrondi à 50.000
That will be my main sources about the toll of death, prisoners numbers, and death rates, all extracted from the French Gulag Wikipedia article
These sources are based upon actual soviet archives analysis, I will begin with the following quote that is extracted from The french Gulag wikipedia article
Keep in mind that between those two date, there is this small event called the second world war, that lead to an inflation of the death rate in the prison. Also, the 10% of death rate is a Conquest data who has been clearly refuted since. And what they call reliable simply mean western historians.
In the 2000's, Nicolas Werth, a famous anticommunist academician who's one of the main contributor of the infamous Black book of communism, reworked on the numbers of death rate in Gulags, downed it to "between 3-7% pre WW2, and between 0.4-1.2% post wars."
I won't recalculate their numbers on the Werth basis, because there is honestly no need to do it. You already see the flaw.
About Werth analysis of the Gulag numbers, and so Conquest ones, in 1997, an academician, Lily Marcou, blamed him for his lack of seriousness in his work, because Werth were advocating Conquest numbers of 20 millions of death, only to, a few year later, defend not even 3 millions and pretend to be serious.
​But that's historiographical debate, let's just keep their data and move forward. I will use Applebaum data again.
This graphic is the common resources. Let's take a random pre-war year and analyse it. 1936
So as Applebaum numbers, there are around 1.300.000 prisoners in USSR.
Now I will quote another Historian who had access to Soviet archives, Jean Radvanyi, in La Nouvelle Russie.
In peace time, pre-war, the numbers of dead in the Gulag was around 50.000 a year. It's numbers from the archives. Flat. Which mean that in 1936, by Applebaum numbers, there were 1.3 million prisoner, and if there were 50k death, it make 3.85% of death rate. We're far from Nazi concentration camp, it's not even comparable.
It's to be noted here that the % of prisoners is around 1-1.5% of the total population of USSR at the time, as there were around 180 millions inhabitant (1937-1939 recensment) in USSR.
Who was sent to the Gulag ?
Let me quote another time Werth about what Gulag prisoners was.
"De son côté, le chercheur Nicolas Werth indique que la grande majorité des personnes déportées dans les années 1930 étaient des innocents pris dans la rue pour compléter les quotas de déportation, et qui purgeaient, sauf exception, des peines de droit commun n’excédant pas cinq ans."
"For his part, the researcher Nicolas Werth indicates that the vast majority of people deported in the 1930s were innocent people caught on the streets to supplement the deportation quotas, and who were serving, with some exceptions, common law sentences not exceeding five years. "
It's written black on white, they were in their vast majority common law delinquentes and weren't sentenced to death, lifetime or things like that, they were condemned to prison for a few years maximum for the vast majority and they for 95% for them get out of Gulag.
Basically they pretend in the same time that Gulags were massive political repression and mass killing camp against political prisoners, and that the vast majority of people weren't even politicized;
They pretend that it was mass killing concentration camp, where in fact a vast majority of people were sentenced for a few years and get out of the Gulag.
They pretend dozen of millions of people died, when it fact it was not even 1 millions between 34 and 47, so including the purge and the world war, as even westerner historian who have worked on the archive have reported.
Does it make the Gulag system good? Hell no, but it clearly show how much the western propaganda can have an hypocrite double standard when it come to what's moral and what's not. Let's make another case study.
A modern time comparison.
Let me introduce you to nowadays USA prisoners number. And before digging further, I want to put two fact under the spotlight.
" Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. "
  1. Immediate improvements to the conditions of prisons and prison policies that recognize the humanity of imprisoned men and women.
  2. An immediate end to prison slavery. All persons imprisoned in any place of detention under United States jurisdiction must be paid the prevailing wage in their state or territory for their labor.
  3. The Prison Litigation Reform Act must be rescinded, allowing imprisoned humans a proper channel to address grievances and violations of their rights.
  4. The Truth in Sentencing Act and the Sentencing Reform Act must be rescinded so that imprisoned humans have a possibility of rehabilitation and parole. No human shall be sentenced to Death by Incarceration or serve any sentence without the possibility of parole.
  5. An immediate end to the racial overcharging, over-sentencing, and parole denials of Black and brown humans. Black humans shall no longer be denied parole because the victim of the crime was white, which is a particular problem in southern states.
  6. An immediate end to racist gang enhancement laws targeting Black and brown humans.
  7. No imprisoned human shall be denied access to rehabilitation programs) at their place of detention because of their label as a violent offender.
  8. State prisons must be funded specifically to offer more rehabilitation services.
  9. Pell grants must be reinstated in all US states and territories.
  10. The voting rights of all confined citizens serving prison sentences, pretrial detainees, and so-called “ex-felons” must be counted. Representation is demanded. All voices count."
Or we could have spoke about how they are used to down firefighter salary, by being sent to fight Californian fire for "between $2.90 and $5.12 per day, plus an additional $1 per hour during active emergency for their potentially life-threatening efforts. The firefighters they work alongside earn an average of $91,000 each year before overtime pay and bonuses."
In brief being a prisoners in 2020 in the US of A isn't really a pleasing thing to say the very least.
In 2017, the USA, despite being only 5% of the world population, had 25% of the world prisoners. About the overall numbers of prisoners:
"En 2012, environ 2,2 millions de personnes étaient incarcérées aux États-Unis contre environ 2,3 millions janvier 2011*, soit environ 0,9 % de la* population adulte (238 millions)"
" In 2012, approximately 2.2 million people were incarcerated in the United States1 compared to approximately 2.3 million in January 2011, or approximately 0.9% of the adult population (238 million) "
Let also talk about the Blacksites, the CIA secret prisons, or more specifically about Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse, and also about the Bagram one, or the Camp Nama one, and of course, Guantanamo Bay.
I mean, literally all the iraq prison abuse scandal or even things like the Copper Green scandal, or the Maywand district murders, or heck even how their own USA Human right report of March 1, 2014, stated that the PATRIOTIC Act has "encroached upon rights and freedom of citizens, especially the people of ethnic minorities".
Here is another list of legal issues related to the 9/11. And we shouldn't forget the official 2002 torture memo. It's not in 1940 guys.
Another point that is alway good to remember, USA had racist law up until 65.
It is alway good to remember it, because it still have effect nowadays. For instance, "As of 1993, young African-American men are eleven times more likely to be shot to death and nine times more likely to be murdered than their European American peers. Poverty, high unemployment, and broken families, all factors more prevalent in hyper segregated inner-cities, all contribute significantly to the unequal levels of violence experienced by African-Americans. Research has proven that the more segregated the surrounding European American suburban ring is, the rate of violent crime in the inner-city will rise".
Or also the fact that " According to 2009 congressional testimony from Marc Mauer; while African Americans comprise 13% of the US population and 14% of monthly drug users they are 37% of the people arrested for drug offenses; as well as 56% of the people in state prisons for drug offenses. The U.S. Sentencing Commission reported in March 2010 that in the federal system black offenders receive sentences that are 10% longer than white offenders for the same crimes. A July 2009 report by the Sentencing Project found that two-thirds of the people in the U.S. with life sentences are non-white. According to a new report, African-Americans are three times as likely to be killed by police as white Americans.".
But it is not finish yet, we couldn't conclude without citing the famous MKUltra project, in which the CIA tested many drugs, from LSD to DMT, on prisoners
I'm no trying to negate the gulag existence, I'm factually relativising its importance, especially since we have way more bad shit as of right now and no one care. I mean, I could have talk about Camp Buca, in which the Deash leadership prepared their evil plan among 26.000 other prisoners, in what is seen as a model usa prison camp. Or the actual concentration camp scandal that is ongoing at the usa border. Or the fucked "war on drugs" that put literally millions of people in jail for consuming drugs... And so on and so on...
I know that I may sound a bit out of topic, but it's important to put events in their context, and here it means to says what was the situation around the World at the time, because if we don't we will inevitably fall into an anachronistic analysis and so an incorrect one. Gulag were bad, clearly. Prison aren't supposed to be good in the first place, and they still aren't good nowadays. But it's absolutely not comparable by any mean with any type of nazi camp. For instance, except for the death sentenced, almost no dead were wanted by the political power. Of course, for the two or three weak in the back that will say me it, there were abuse, numerous, and probably that there have been corruption, yada yada, but there are no willing to genocide or mass supress people who went to the Gulag, or no such proof had been produced by the historiographical World as of today, or no consensual one afaik.
And i'm comparing it to the USA both because of historical and economical context. The cold war and so the War between the two blocks as two superpower, but also as a capitalism vs communism ideological conflict, which lead me to my last and final point.
We are not liberal. I do recognize the numerous flaws and abuse and perversion of the Gulag, just like I would with any other prison system, but I 100% recognize that if we put on a scale what was accomplished under Stalin and all those who profited from his leadership, versus those who had to unfairly suffer from it, it certainly is vastly more beneficial both for communism and the soviet citizen as whole, and I've no shame in being proud of it, especially when you see where does most of his criticizer leave and who they are.
The best proof of it is the fact that it's not Stalin that made the purge. It was the whole party and state apparatus, and a big part of the people too. Especially all the abuse.
So when people say that Stalin did this or that, what they factually highlight is their very own lack of understanding of Marxism Leninism, of USSR and of the functionment of a Party.
submitted by orangutanA1 to EuropeanSocialists [link] [comments]


2020.09.01 11:02 Arvorezinho Neptune, quand la théorie surclasse l'observation

Note : comme expliqué la semaine dernière, je poste un article par semaine sur mon blog et je le propose ici aussi. Les thèmes sont libres et je suis censé parler de tout, mais je suis dans une période de passion astronomique incurable. Donc aujourd'hui on parle de la découverte de Neptune. Comme j'étais en vacances dans mon Gard d'adoption, l'article est un peu plus court que ce que je vise habituellement : ~ 900 mots au lieu de ~ 1500.
Découverte de Neptune / Calculs mathématiques / Astronomie / Galilée / Uranus / Voyager 2
L'Italien Galilée, en 1609, utilise pour la première fois une lunette astronomique. Le ciel, en ces temps de sobriété lumineuse, regorgeait déjà de milliers d'étoiles. Pour être précis, on recense environ 3000 étoiles visibles à l'œil nu dans l'hémisphère nord. Après quelques utilisations, il devient évident pour Galilée que bien d'autres étoiles existent, qui n'étaient pas connues. Il finira par conclure que "leur nombre dépasse de plus de dix fois celui des étoiles anciennement connues".
Si on accepte son hypothèse, cela nous fait 30 000 étoiles à observer et répertorier. On comprend alors aisément qu'il n'ait pas eu le temps d'explorer toutes les pistes que lui offrait ses incessantes observations.
Notamment, il découvre une nouvelle étoile le 26 décembre 1612 alors qu'il observe Jupiter. Il note dans son carnet sa position. Le 28 janvier 1613, soit un mois plus tard, il revoit cette étoile et constate qu'elle s'est déplacée ... par rapport à une étoile voisine. Une étoile qui se déplace par rapport à une autre étoile ? Il n'en conclut rien : Neptune était quasi immobile dans le ciel parce qu’elle commençait son mouvement rétrograde. Son faible déplacement, sa petite taille apparente et les performances du télescope de Galilée ne lui permettaient pas de s’avancer : il faut dire qu'il a d'autres choses à prouver, et notamment que les planètes déjà connues tournent autour du soleil et non de la Terre, hypothèse formulée par Copernic plus d'un demi-siècle plus tôt.
Cette étrange étoile sera à nouveau observée par deux astronomes en 1796, qui ne noteront rien de particulier non plus. Poséidon restera caché sous la mer froide et sombre qu'est notre voûte céleste, jusqu'à ce que les mathématiques ne l'obligent à faire surface.
Découverte en 1781, Uranus est la première planète découverte à l'aide d'un télescope. En effet, Mercure, Vénus, Mars, Jupiter et Saturne furent découvertes durant l'Antiquité et bien entendu à l’œil nu, puisque la première lunette astronomique date de 1609. Après une hésitation entre une planète et une comète, Uranus est déclarée planète car elle suit beaucoup mieux le modèle associé.
Elle suit mieux le modèle, mais pas parfaitement, loin de là. Son comportement est globalement bon, mais parfois elle ralentit, puis accélère. Les scientifiques cherchent donc une explication. Ils révisent les modèles en intégrant l'influence de Jupiter et de Saturne. Ils sont alors plus précis mais ne collent toujours pas. Il y a une autre influence qui perturbe la vitesse d'Uranus.
Deux théories vont alors s'affronter, la première est qu'il y a en effet une planète qui perturbe la trajectoire, l'autre que les lois de la gravité s'affaiblissent à une grande distance du soleil. La première théorie sera un défi pour deux mathématiciens, l'un Français et l'autre Anglais : Urbain le Verrier et John Couch Adams.
L'Anglais sera le premier à avoir des résultats intéressants qu'il envoie à un certain Airy. Cependant, Airy doute des travaux et les laissera de côté ... jusqu'à ce qu'il entende parler des travaux du Français. Il demande alors à un de ses astronomes, Chaillis, d'observer le ciel à la recherche de la planète en question. La précision qu'Airy demandera sera tellement fine que Chaillis, qui commence ses observations le 01 aout 1846, se fera devancer.
Car le Français le Verrier, lui, présente ses travaux définitifs le 31 août 1846, mais ne suscitera que peu d'enthousiasme face aux astronomes français. Il écrit alors à un astronome Prussien qu'il connait, en lui donnant les positions théoriques de la planète, jour par jour. Dès le soir du jour où celui-ci reçoit le courrier, le 23 septembre 1846, il observe le ciel et tombe sur la planète en question à un degré de la position annoncée. Il attend quelques heures pour vérifier que l'astre a bien bougé, et confirme ensuite que c'est bien la planète recherchée. Neptune est enfin découverte et reconnue comme planète.
Depuis, les observations ont permis de rectifier les calculs, qui étaient bons mais perfectibles. Eh oui, il n'est pas facile de déterminer la distance et la masse exacte de la planète en question.
Par la suite, Neptune sera observée de nombreuses fois par des télescopes plus évolués. A ce jour cependant, seule la sonde Voyager 2 l'a survolé, pour nous en fournir une belle photo en 1989. Et coup de chance, elle est bleue et porte bien son nom ! Elle n'est cependant pas composée d'eau, mais de d'Hydrogène et d’Hélium principalement, et c'est une autre histoire. Une autre histoire aussi est celle de la sonde voyager 2, qui a quant à elle continué son périple vers d'autres étoiles et a quitté le système solaire magnétique en 2018.
Lien vers l'article : https://passepresentavenir-arvo.blogspot.com/2020/08/neptune-quand-la-theorie-qui-surclasse.html
submitted by Arvorezinho to france [link] [comments]


2020.08.02 23:20 maxbfortin Sentier International des Appalaches - QC

An English version can be found here.

Le SIA-QC en général

Le SIA-QC, ou GR-A1, est un sentier de 650 km qui relie la ville de Matapédia à Cap-Gaspé, au Parc national du Canada Forillon. Vous y trouverez des plateformes de camping, des abris et des refuges.
Pour plus d'informations, consulter leur site web.

Planifier un thru-hike

L'option à privilégier si vous planifiez la Grande Traversée est de vous procurer le Passeport de Grande Traversée. Le passeport donne accès à toutes les plateformes/abris/refuges du SIA, sans nécessiter de réservation au jour le jour (ce qui est normalement le cas). Toutefois, cela exclut tous les sites qui se situent à l'intérieur du Parc national de la Gaspésie. Pour ceux-ci, vous devez réserver d'avance vos sites avec la SÉPAQ directement. Le passeport de Grande Traversée inclue les plateformes et abris dans le Parc national du Canada Forillon, mais PAS les campings Bon-Ami ou Petit-Gaspé.
Le passeport coûte 340$ + taxes et donne accès au randonneur aux sites mentionnés ci-haut, mais advenant que d'autres gens aient une réservation spécifiquement pour la journée où vous y êtes, ils ont priorité. Si l'abri et toutes les plateformes sont déjà utilisées, vous devrez vous installer au sol, en respectant le Sans Traces. Cela ne m'a pas posé problème, aux dates de ma randonnée, mais pourrait être problématique plus tard en saison.
Pour le Parc national de la Gaspésie et le Parc national du Canada Forillon, vous devez acquitter vos frais d'admission quotidiens pour chaque jour où vous y serez, à moins d'être détenteur d'une carte annuelle/saisonnière.
Les cartes topographiques du SIA sont disponibles sur le site web du SIA. Il est également possible d'y télécharger les cartes Avenza.
De plus, le SIA vous demandera une copie de votre itinéraire, afin d'en valider avec vous la faisabilité, et de mieux prévoir où il pourrait y avoir une forte concentration de randonneurs.

Ma randonnée : 26/06/2020 au 18/07/2020 - Photos!

Jour 0: J'ai conduit avec ma soeur jusqu'au Camping Nature Aventure à Matapédia, près du départ du sentier. Il est également possible de laisser gratuitement un véhicule à long terme à ce camping.
Jour 1: Matapédia au Refuge Turcotte - 19 km Départ tardif en raison d'un brunch. En ce début de saison, il était parfois difficile de distinguer le sentier des pistes d'orignaux. Heureusement, il y a de nombreux marqueurs de sentier aux arbres. J'ai ramassé une sandale Croc tombée dans l'espoir de la remettre à son propriétaire. Le refuge Turcotte était toujours en rénovation, à mon passage. J'ai installé mon moustiquaire à l'intérieur en raison des milliards de moustiques ayant élu domicile à l'intérieur, et me suis endormi à leur douce musique de vampires insatiables.
Jour 2: Refuge Turcotte au Refuge du Quartz - 27 km
Journée du Canyon du Ruisseau Clark, et donc journée de pieds mouillés! Le sentier traverse le ruisseau 9 fois en 2km. Il y avait des ponts, la plupart pourris ou affaissés, au moment de mon passage. Les bénévoles du SIA ont depuis érigé plusieurs nouveaux ponts! Dans le canyon, il y a un microclimat particulier et une végétation dense et imposante, des fougères de presque 2m de haut! L'eau est y est très froide, mais le ruisseau n'est pas large, quelques mètres tout au plus. J'ai vu ce jour-là mes deux premiers orignaux du sentier. J'ai aussi rencontré Potoum et Potoum, deux filles qui ont planifié 43 jours sur le sentier pour prendre le temps de l'apprécier à leur rythme, c'est-à-dire un rythme Potoum-Potoum. J'ai aussi rencontré Student (Stu), un gars qui s'est lancé dans cette aventure sans aucune expérience de backpacking. Compte tenu des circonstances, il s'est très bien préparé. En soirée, on l'ai aidé à se débarrasser des items non-essentiels, qu'il a par la suite renvoyés chez lui. On a passé une très belle soirée près de la rivière Assemetquagan.
Jour 3: Refuge du Quartz à Abri Sainte-Marguerite - 23 km
La montée tout de suite après le Refuge du Quartz est assez brutale! Dans la journée, j'ai rattrapé Sporky, le randonneur à la Croc manquante. J'étais bien content de lui remettre son colis (d'où mon nom de FedEx). J'ai vu mes premières éoliennes de très près! Près de l'abri de Sainte-Marguerite, il y a un dépanneur où il est possible de prendre une douche et recharger ses électroniques.
Jour 4: Abri Sainte-Marguerite à Abri des Chutes - 37 km
Dès 4h, j'étais réveillé. J'ai donc ramassé mes choses et suis parti de bonne heure. J'ai réalisé que j'avais planifié récupérer ma boîte de ravitaillement au bureau de poste d'Amqui le 1er juillet, sauf que les bureaux de poste sont fermés les jours fériés. J'ai donc accéléré le pas pour m'y rendre en 2 jours au lieu de trois, et récupérer mon colis le 30 juin en après-midi, au lieu du 1er juillet. Stu m'a rattrapé dans la journée et on a poursuivi ensemble. À Causapscal, il a renvoyé chez lui 2.4 kg de matériel. Il était trop tôt pour que les cantines ouvrent, ô malheur. Le sentier après Causapscal était en manque d'entretien, mais nous a offert de beaux points de vue, ainsi qu'un balbuzard pêcheur avec un poisson dans ses serres! L'abri des Chutes était envahi de mouches à chevreuil, les plateformes ont fait le travail. On a pu observer les saumons sauter dans la chute!
Jour 5: Abri des Chutes à Abri du camping d'Amqui - 39 km
Stu s'était fait de vilaines ampoules, on s'est entendus pour se retrouver à Amqui le lendemain soir, après mon zéro. J'ai eu de la difficulté à trouver le sentier après avoir vraisemblablement manqué un virage dans les sentiers de VTT. J'ai décidé de traverser un terrain en défriche au lieu de revenir sur mes pas, et ça a payé, j'ai retrouvé le sentier peu avant le Mont Thabor. La vue y était belle, mais les moustiques et les mouches à chevreuil m'ont forcer à quitter le secteur à la course. J'ai atteint le bureau de poste d'Amqui en milieu d'après-midi et j'ai continué le 4-5km d'extra pour se rendre au camping municipal d'Amqui, où un abri du SIA est disponible pour les longs randonneurs. Christian, le premier à être parti de Matapédia cette année, y était déjà. On a profité des douches et de la buanderie, et Stu m'a texté qu'il s'était rendu à Amqui finalement, et qu'il s'était pris une chambre d'hôtel en ville.
Jour 6: Abri d'Amqui à un motel d'Amqui - 0km
J'ai fait des courses avec Stu et on s'est gâté à l'épicerie et au resto/microbrasserie La Captive que je recommande fortement. La nuit dans un lit a fait du bien.
Jour 7: Amqui à Abri de Saint-Vianney - 32 km
La portion sur route en sortant d'Amqui est longue et ennuyante. Stu était parti 1h30 avant moi, alors j'étais seul, et en prime, il a plu quelques heures. Au moment où j'ai atteint l'Abri des 3 Soeurs (très bel abri), le soleil est sorti et j'en ai profité pour faire sécher mes vêtements et souliers. Le reste de la journée s'est déroulé sur des sentiers de VTT et des chemins forestiers. J'ai rejoint Stu à l'Abri de Saint-Vianney, situé en périphérie du parc municipal, derrière les structures de jeux pour enfants. La clé est disponible au dépanneur en face. L'eau de Saint-Vianney est mauvaise. La douche n'était pas accessible en raison de la COVID. Il y a un resto-bar qu'on n'a pas visité.
Jour 8: Abri Saint-Vianney à Abri des Pitounes - 32 km
En quittant Saint-Vianney, le sentier semble monter au sommet de la Montagne à la Croix, mais ce n'est pas le cas, comme nous l'avons appris une fois au sommet. Il faut plutôt emprunter la route de gravier qui contourne la montagne par la gauche. La vue était pas mal, au moins! On est arrivés à la Réserve faunique de Matane, mais Stu s'est foulé la cheville, pour la 2e fois de son parcours. On s'est donc séparés au Poste John... J'ai alors entamé la Réserve seul, réputée pour être la section la plus difficile du SIA. Le sentier y est étroit, sauvage, peu entretenu, détrempé par les fougères et compte davantage de crottin d'orignal par mètre carré que n'importe où ailleurs (estimé non-scientifique). L'abri des Pitounes était bien, mais je préfère les plateformes lorsque la météo est clémente.
Jour 9: Abri des Pitounes à Abri du Lac Matane - 27 km
Il est devenu clair qu'il serait bien plus difficile de progresser dans la réserve. Les fougères chargées de rosée, la chaleur et l'humidité font en sorte qu'on est détrempé, peu importe ce qu'on fait. Il semble y avoir des switchbacks quand ce n'est pas nécessaire, et vice versa. Le terrain est abrupt et accidenté. Avec la météo, je n'ai pas vu grand chose jusqu'au Lac Matane, après une descente importante. L'Abri du Lac Matane vaut le détour! Le vent se charge des mouches et le lac est magnifique. Dans le cahier des randonneurs, j'ai vu que Stu était déjà passé par là! Sa cheville s'était rapidement calmée et il a fait du pouce jusqu'au Lac Matane la veille. Il avait donc maintenant une journée complète d'avance sur moi!
Jour 10: Abri du Lac Matane à Abri du Lac Beaulieu - 25 km
De loin ma journée la plus exigeante, physiquement et mentalement. La montée après le Lac Matane était abrupte et la suite était détrempée, accidentée, isolée, sauvage. La pluie a commencé à 10h pour ne s'arrêter que le lendemain. Au moment où je passais le sommet du Mont Fernand-Fafard, des éclairs ont commencé à tomber non loin à l'est. J'ai passé les 5 autres sommets de la journée rapidement, dans la tempête. La température a chuté à près de 10C et j'étais détrempé de pluie et de sueur, en plus d'avoir une douleur à l'intérieur de ma cuisse droite et d'être épuisé. En approchant l'abri du Lac Beaulieu, démoralisé, j'ai entendu «BIN NON» venir de l'abri. C'était Stu, et en plus, il venait de faire du café! J'étais sauvé. De son côté, sa cheville allait bien et lui aussi était content de retrouver un partenaire de rando.
Jour 11: Abri du Lac Beaulieu à Abri du Ruisseau Bascon - 24 km
L'ascension après le Lac Beaulieu commence raide, mais se calme rapidement. Le sommet de Nicol-Albert est cool, mais le meilleur de cette montagne, c'est le détour au Monolithe du Bonhomme. Il faut descendre quelques cordes dans un passage étroit pour arriver au monolithe qui siège fièrement tout près du gouffre. Sur la gauche, que des nuages, mais sur la droite, vue dégagée sur la vallée de la rivière Cap-Chat, époustouflant! La descente est longue et technique, mais parsemée de nombreuses chutes dans lesquelles il faisait bon se rafraîchir. On a récupéré nos boîtes placées par les gens du SIA à l'abri du Petit-Sault, où on s'est également reposés. Dans la descente, j'ai ramassé une sandale Croc bleue perdue sur le sentier, que j'ai par la suite laissée à l'abri du Petit-Sault. Les chips All-Dressed sont toujours une bénédiction. On a arrêté à la Chute à Hélène, majestueuse du haut de ses 70m, avant de terminer notre journée à l'abri du Ruisseau Bascon.
Jour 12: Abri du ruisseau Bascon à la plateforme de camping Le Kalmia - 35 km
Cette journée marque officiellement notre arrivée dans les terrains alpins. Le Mont Matawees et la crête du Mont Fortin sont à couper le souffle, offrant des vues vers les montagnes qui nous attendent dans le Parc de la Gaspésie. Arrivés à la pancarte marquant la frontière entre la Réserve et le Parc, nous avons officiellement laissé la section la plus difficile du sentier derrière nous. La montée du Mont Logan se fait bien. Il y a un détour de 200m pour accéder à un point d'eau qui jaillit de la montagne directement. Au sommet du Mt Logan, il y a une bâtisse et des antennes pour s'abriter du vent. La vue est impressionnante et le réseau cellulaire y était disponible. À partir du Mt Logan, la descente se fait dans un chemin d'accès rocailleux assez large. Les plateformes sont situées près de lacs, et les moustiques y étaient nombreux à ce temps-ci de l'année, mais cela n'a rien enlevé à notre plus belle journée sur le sentier à date.
Jour 13: Plateforme de camping Le Kalmia à plateforme de camping Le Saule - 14 km
Petite journée pour récupérer de la Réserve faunique de Matane et de notre grosse journée précédente. Couchés de bonne heure, en prévision du lever de soleil au Pic de l'Aube le lendemain.
Jour 14: Plateforme de camping Le Saule à plateforme de camping La Fougère - 25 km
Une belle journée qui a commencé à 3h30 pour revenir sur nos pas un peu et aller voir le lever de soleil au Pic de l'Aube, une expérience que je suggère fortement! On y a déjeuné et au moment où les premiers rayons commençaient à percer, les nuages ont commencé à s'installer, menaçant de nous gâcher la vue. Heureusement pour nous, ils ont plutôt fait un beau mélange avec les rayons, on se seraient crus dans une peinture! C'était notre meilleur journée à ce jour. On s'est par la suite rendus au camping du Lac Cascapédia, où on a pu prendre une douche et acheter des barres de chocolats/crème glacée/barres tendres et Stu y a récupéré son ravitaillement des gens du SIA. Après une bonne pause, on s'est rendus à La Fougère en passant par le Mont Ells et le Mont du Milieu.
Jour 15: Plateforme de camping La Fougère à plateforme de camping La Camarine - 31 km
Au lever de soleil, nous étions sur le sentier et amorcions notre ascension vers le plateau du Mont Albert. Le changement de décor y est drastique: on est passés d'une forêt dense et humide à une taïga/toundra alpine recouverte de roches rougeâtres en quelques minutes seulement. Ce n'était pas sans rappeler les décors des bandes dessinées de Lucky Luke. Il y avait encore de la neige à quelques endroits au sommet, c'était rafraîchissant. En même temps, la réflexion du soleil sur la neige m'a presque donnée un coup de soleil sur les jambes, la crème solaire n'est pas du luxe dans cet environnement. Dans notre descente, on a commencé à voir de plus en plus de randonneurs d'une journée et de touristes visiblement mal préparés, sans eau et sans chapeau sous le soleil intense. On s'est rendu au Centre de découverte et de services, où j'avais un colis de ravitaillement (que j'avais posté avant qu'on me dise qu'ils n'acceptaient plus les colis de randonneurs en raison de la COVID). Je l'ai récupéré sans problème et on y a rechargé nos appareils électroniques en profitant de sandwiches à la crème glacée et du Wifi gratuit. Par la suite, on a continué vers le Lac aux Américains et vers 17h, on a entamé notre ascension, pour finalement atteindre le sommet, complètement seuls! On a profité de ce luxe pour souper au sommet et y regarder le coucher de soleil. Nous avons par la suite dormi à La Camarine. Pour la troisième fois en 4 jours, c'était maintenant notre meilleure journée sur le sentier. Commencez-vous à remarquer un pattern dans le Parc de la Gaspésie? ;)
Jour 16: Plateforme de camping La Camarine au Refuge Le Cabouron - 29 km
On a entamé l'ascension vers le Mont Jacques-Cartier, traversé une portion enneigée du sentier et commencé la montée du champs de roches. Par chance, on a pu observers 4 caribous qui étaient devant nous, au sommet de la montagne et qui broutaient du lichen. Selon le dernier recensement, il y aurait maintenant moins de 75 individus au sud du Saint-Laurent. Pendant une trentaine de minutes, on est restés immobiles, puis ils sont partis. Au sommet, on a profité du temps dégagé pour admirer la vue tout autour. Puis, nous avons descendu jusqu'au camping du Mont Jacques-Cartier, où on a pris une douche à nouveau, du repos, et des sandwiches à la crème glacée. C'était encore une fois, vous l'aurez deviné, notre plus belle journée sur le sentier. Quelques kilomètres avant le Refuge Le Cabouron, on a croisé un ruisseau à fort débit qui avait visiblement emporté le pont qui y était précédemment. Au refuge, on a rencontré une autre randonneur qui n'avait qu'une seule botte. En traversant le ruisseau précédent avec ses bottes dans les mains, il en avait échappé une qui est partie en flottant à tout jamais. Il a donc enfilé 7 bas et continué à marcher, et a reçu le surnom de 7-Bas. Il a éventuellement atteint Mont-Saint-Pierre ainsi, où sa mère lui a donné une nouvelle paire de souliers. J'en ris encore!
Jour 17: Refuge Le Cabouron au camping privé Parc et Mer - 34 km
Cela faisait plusieurs jours que je communiquais avec une randonneuse devant nous qui faisait Amqui à Cap-Gaspé. Elle avait récemment terminé et nous a surpris en nous attendant à une intersection du sentier. Il était 10h le matin et nous offrait du café ou de la bière. On a évidemment pris une bière et accepté son offre de nous sauver la portion de route restante. On est arrivés au camping Parc et Mer, offrant une vue magnifique mais des sites exposés au vent fort. Ma Duomid était solide, même avec seulement 5 piquets. D'autres tentes autour n'ont pas très bien performé, et certaines ont eu des bris en raison des vents forts. 7- Bas nous a rejoint peu de temps après, et tous les trois sommes allés à la cantine La Seigneurie où j'ai mangé la meilleure poutine de ma vie. Frites, sauce brune, fromage en grains avec oignons caramélisés, poivrons grillés et morceaux de pepperoni, accompagnés de crevette panées, d'une bière de microbrasserie locale et en bonne compagnie, c'était la totale! Pour l'expérience humaine cette journée-là, c'était encore une fois ma journée préférée.
Jour 18: Camping Parc et Mer au Motel de Madeleine Centre - environ 40 km
De la pluie incessante. Plusieurs kilomètres de 132. Dur pour le moral, et pas grand chose d'excitant sur le sentier par cette température. On a donc choisi de se rendre jusqu'à Madeleine Centre et de partager une chambre de motel. Le personnel était très cool et on nous a offert de mettre nos vêtements à la sécheuse, gratuitement. On a pris nos douches, mangé et on s'est couchés tôt.
Jour 19: Motel de Madeleine Centre à Grande-Vallée - 30 km
Le déjeuner au motel était copieux et on avait de la belle météo. On a progressé rapidement et rencontré plusieurs gens de la place, qui étaient curieux, intéressés et généreux. Les gens représentent vraiment la richesse de la Haute-Gaspésie et de la Côte de Gaspé, à mon avis. Tout juste avant Grande-Vallée, il y a un promontoire sur le côté de la 132 qui offre une vue imprenable sur le village. Grande-Vallée est plus développé que les autres villages croisés à date, et leur épicerie offre une bonne sélection pour un ravitaillement. J'ai évidemment acheté trop de nourriture. J'ai croisé un jeune couple en cyclotourisme qui faisait le tour de la 132 en vélo. Ils avaient complété la section de la Réserve faunique de Matane du SIA l'année d'avant, et une des deux m'a partagé avoir perdu une CROC BLEUE dans la descente du Mont Nicol-Albert. On a bien ri quand je lui ai dit l'avoir trouvée et remise dans l'abri du Petit-Sault! Finalement, Stu et moi on a été embarqués par la cousine d'un ami qui vit à Grande-Vallée. On a été reçus comme des rois avec un bon BBQ et beaucoup de plaisir.
Jour 20: Grande-Vallée au Refuge Cascades - 28 km
Les sections de sentier sur les plages de galets sont belles, mais vraiment dures sur les pieds. C'est difficile de garder un bon rythme sur ces portions de 5-6 km. Il faut aussi s'assurer de les franchir lorsque la marée n'est pas haute, pour éviter d'être coincé entre la mer et une falaise, mais je ne crois pas que ce problème soit très fréquent, à moins d'être là lorsque les marées sont plus hautes qu'en temps normal. La brise et la vue sont superbes par contre! Le reste du sentier jusqu'au refuge était un mix de sentiers de VTT et de chemins d'accès d'éoliennes. MAIS, il y avait ce qui semblait être des quantités infinies de fraises de champs le long de ces sentiers, on en a profité. Le Refuge Cascades est moins bien que les autres et semble fréquenté par des gens locaux qui n'ont pas les mêmes valeurs que la plupart des randonneurs. Il y avait plusieurs verres de bière jetés par terre, des déchets laissés sur place et des souris à l'intérieur.
Jour 21: Refuge Cascades au Camping des Appalaches sur la route 197 - Environ 60 km
Rendus à Saint-Yvon, on a retrouvé la plage et ses galets. Les formations rocheuses le long de cette portion du sentier étaient fascinantes! Malheureusement pour Stu, ça commençait à en faire pas mal pour sa cheville fragilisée. Au Grand-Étang, après 15km en 6h, on a décidé de se rejoindre au Camping des Appalaches, à deux jours de marches. Stu est parti en faisant du pouce et j'ai continué le long de la 132. J'étais maintenant au meilleur de ma forme, et je souhaitais pousser mes limites et voir jusqu'où mes jambes pourraient m'amener avec le temps restant de la journée. Au cours des 8h suivantes, j'ai atteint Pointe-à-la-Renommée, le Refuge du Zéphyr (probablement le plus beau de tout le sentier), L'Anse-à-Valleau. Cela faisait quelques kilomètres que je courrais dans les descentes et je progressais rapidement. Au marqueur du kilomètre 68, j'ai décidé de prendre un chemin alternatif au SIA dans le but de rester sur un chemin dégagé pour pouvoir y courir. J'ai suivi un chemin forestier parallèle au sentier jusqu'au kilomètre 60. J'ai par la suite atteint le Refuge de l'Érablière aux alentours de 19h20, ce qui me laissait un peu plus d'une heure de clarté encore. J'ai pris quelques minutes de repos pour manger, remplir mon eau et je suis reparti à la course sur le sentier. J'ai atteint le km 47 un peu avant 21h, marquant un nouveau record personnel de distance en une journée. Stu était déjà au camping, et m'a accueilli avec grande surprise et une demie-bouteille de vin. J'ai mangé, bu et me suis étiré consciencieusement, avant de monter ma tente et de m'endormir comme une roche. Le camping est cher pour ce que c'est, à 30$ la nuit pour un carré de gazon et une table à pique-nique. La buanderie et les douches sont payantes, mais appréciées. Ils n'étaient pas les plus «hiker friendly».
Jour 22: Camping des Appalaches à Abri Des Lacs - 15 km
Stu et moi avions planifié un zéro ici, mais en début d'après-midi, on avait déjà pris notre douche et fait notre lessive, et on s'ennuyait royalement. On est donc reparti sur le sentier et on est entrés dans Forillon après environ 2km sur le 197. Au camping, on nous a dit que le sentier serait abrupt et difficile. Ouais, ça c'était sans compter les jambes qu'on s'est faites dans les derniers 600+ km! Le sentier était en fait impeccable! Large et bien entretenu, il serait possible de courir aisément toute la section de Forillon, à mon avis. L'abri des Lacs a trois murs, et la porte orientée vers le lac. En l'absence de toile pour fermer la porte, j'ai installé ma bâche de manière à nous bloquer le vent et la pluie qui pénétrait l'abri. Il y a sur place une boîte anti-ours, pour les ours noirs qui sont apparemment problématiques à Forillon. On a pas vu l'ombre d'un ours de tout notre parcours, en fait.
Jour 23: Abri Des Lacs jusqu'au Bout du Monde - 33 km + 7 km
Dernière journée! Plus on s'approchait des campings de Forillon, plus il y avait de touristes. Le sentier était toujours exceptionnellement entretenu, ce qui nous a permis d'atteindre le Bout du Monde vers 14h. Il y a un monument et des panneaux interprétatifs qui expliquent ce qu'est le SIA au km 0. Il y avait des touristes qui se demandaient à voix haute comment est-ce que quelqu'un pourrait ou voudrait bien parcourir tout ce chemin, et on était bien heureux de répondre à leurs questions!
J'étais soulagé et fier d'avoir complété le SIA, mais une partie de moi en demandait encore plus. Je serais intéressé à m'essayer pour un FKT (record de vitesse) auto-supporté du SIA QC l'été prochain, s'il n'est pas déjà pulvérisé cette année.
Sur les 7km de chemin pour retourner au stationnement le plus près, j'ai demandé aux deux premières personnes qu'on a croisées si elles se rendaient à Gaspé, et si elles voudraient bien nous y emmener. Coup de chance, elles ont accepté! On a été déposés tout près du Motel Adams, qui fait également office de terminus d'autobus pour les Orléans Express. On a célébré avec une pizza, une bonne bière et sommes rentrés à la maison par autobus le lendemain.

Équipement: Lighterpack


Voilà! Si vous avez une question en lien avec cette rando, n'hésitez pas :)
Au plaisir!
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2020.06.18 15:03 middleway Vajracchedikā Prajñāpāramitā

A shooting star, a clouding of the sight, a lamp, An illusion, a drop of dew, a bubble, A dream, a lightning’s flash, a thunder cloud This is the way one should see the conditioned.
Vajracchedikā Prajñāpāramitā A New English Translation of the Sanskrit Text Based on Two Manuscripts from Greater Gandhāra* Paul Harrison Introduction In the following pages readers will find a new English translation of the Sanskrit text of the Vajracchedikå Prajñåpåramitå based on two of the oldest surviving manuscript copies of the work. The first of these copies is the one in the Schøyen Collection, edited in this volume by Harrison & Watanabe. Only recently discovered, it appears as the second text (following the Bhai∑ajyaguru) in MS 2385. This ms is presumed to have come from Afghanistan, possibly the Bamiyan area, and is dated on paleographical grounds to the 6th–7th centuries. The second copy is the Gilgit Vajracchedikå, discovered in Northern Pakistan in 1931, and subsequently edited by Chakravarti (1956), Dutt (1959), and Schopen (1989). Since the last edition by Schopen is the only reliable one, it is used as the basis for this translation. The date of the Gilgit ms is approximately 6th–7th centuries also. The Schøyen ms (henceforth S) preserves roughly the first half of the text, in a continuous run over fols. 26–46 (corrresponding to §§1–16c), the Gilgit (henceforth G) the last two thirds, on fols. 5–12, but with the loss of one folio, No. 6 (thus covering §§13b–14e, 15b–32b). In basing a translation on a combination of these two manuscripts—joining the upper half of one body to the bottom half of the other, as it were—one is obviously taking the risk of creating a hybrid Frankenstein’s monster unlike any version that ever existed, but there is sufficient overlap in the waist area to establish that the two manuscripts represent roughly the same recension of the text, even if they are not identical.1 Provided that one clearly marks the line between the two halves, leaving all the stitches visible, no great harm is done. The result is, I hope, a useful rendition of this important text in the form in which it was circulating in the area of Greater Gandhåra in the 6th and 7th centuries A.D.
All conditioned dharmas Are like dreams, illusions, bubbles, or shadows; Like drops of dew, or like flashes of lightning; Thusly should they be contemplated.
Vajracchedikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra
Translated from Taishō Tripiṭaka volume 8, number 235
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2020.05.28 12:03 Gaazoh Un annuaire pour /r/france

Je continue ici la discussion qui s'était entamée , ça me parait plus approprié.

Petit résumé, pour ceux qui n'ont pas suivi

CitoyenEuropeen et moi-même sommes d'accord sur le principe de faire profiter /france du travail fait dans /annuaire, KassGrain ( modérateur d'/france ) a l'air partant aussi.
Chronologiquement, d'abord il y a eu la grande consultation pour demander des idées pour relancer l'activité du sous-marin, qui décline. Quelques personnes ( dont moi ) on suggéré de mettre à jour et utiliser au mieux tous les espaces périphériques à /france, afin de renouveler l'intérêt dans la vie du sub : sidebar, widgets ( les « sidebars » de new Reddit ), wiki, autres communautés qui gravitent autour d'/france...
Dans cette optique, /annuaire a déjà fait un travail au top, qu'il serait chouette de valoriser sur /france, parce que les utilisateurs sont majoritairement là.
Ajouter des liens vers /annuaire à la sidebar et aux widgets d'/france serait un bon début, mais on n'a pas la main dessus. Par contre, on peut :

Ce qui a déjà été dit

Ce que j'en pense, personnellement

Mes réactions aux propositions faites :
Mes idées sur la question ( j'admets y avoir déjà réfléchi ) :

A vous

Des choses à ajouter ? Des remarques ?
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2020.05.25 21:16 azdecker999 En date du 23 mai 2020, la Mauricie–Centre-du-Québec recense 1862 cas de COVID-19 sur son territoire, dont 455 cas actifs. Six personnes ont succombé à la maladie dans les 24 dernières heures.

En date du 23 mai 2020, la Mauricie–Centre-du-Québec recense 1862 cas de COVID-19 sur son territoire, dont 455 cas actifs. Six personnes ont succombé à la maladie dans les 24 dernières heures. submitted by azdecker999 to centreduquebec [link] [comments]


2020.04.12 17:36 HankEnviro Sell your car quick in Brampton

The city of Brampton is a fast growing city within the Greater Toronto Area. Brampton reported a population of nearly 600,000 residents in 2016. We expect Brampton to have about a 3% growth rate, so Brampton's population could be around 660,000 as of the date of this article. How can you get quick cash for your car in Brampton?
This article will discuss the neighborhoods in Brampton, commuters in the population, notable people from Brampton and what types of cars people drive in Brampton! As well, we'll review how you can sell your old / junk / unwanted scrap car, truck, or van for quick cash if you life in Brampton.

Neighborhoods in Brampton:

Brampton has a ton of neighborhoods. Each one of them with its own strong sense of community and amazing parks, trails, and small businesses! Brampton is truly thriving!
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What cars are on Brampton Roads?

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The most common cars in Brampton are Import sedans and SUVs, in Brampton. The two most popular sedans in Brampton are the Toyota Corolla and Hyundai Elantra, and the most popular SUVs in Brampton are the Honda CR-V and Hyundai Tuscon

Brampton: Commuter City

Of Brampton nearly 600,000 person population, nearly 240,000 people commute to work. With nearly 180,000 of them commuting outside of Brampton, Ontario! With nearly all of the 240,000 commuters travelling more than 15 minutes, and outside of Brampton to get to work each day. Needless to say, Brampton is a residential city with a lot of commuters for work!

Notable People

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Two notable comedians hail from Brampton, Scott Thompson) and Russell Peters.
Comedic actor Michael Cera was born and raised in Brampton. Shawn Ashmore, Aaron Ashmore (Smallville)) are Brampton-raised. Tyler Labine locally raised actor is currently the star of (Mad Love)).

What to do if you need to sell your car quick?

Does your car, truck, or van need more than minor repairs? If so, read here to find out why it may be better for you to sell us your van for cash, today and save the costs and headaches to come!
How do I know when my car is at the end of its useful life?
If you answer YES to any one of these below questions, it may just your best bet to call us. Let us handle everything for you.
If you answer yes – it may be time to consider your job and family, keep a reliable car and sell us your old one! Its time to get cash for your old, junk, scarp, unwanted car. We proudly service the Toronto, Pickering, Ajax, Oshawa, Markham, Scarborough, North York, Etobicoke, Mississauga, Brampton, Vaughan, Woodbridge, Newmarket, Bradford, Keswick, Newmarket, Aurora, Richmond Hill, Thornhill and more! We pay up to $15,000 for cars and you don’t need to lift a finger!
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2020.03.18 21:37 Adsex Je ne comprends pas pourquoi on s'oriente calmement vers une contamination de masse

Bien entendu, il y a des messages contradictoires, mais on entend régulièrement, de la part de médecins mis en avant par le gouvernement, ou de la part du gouvernement lui-même (Blanquer, notamment), que la France s'oriente vers une contamination de 50 à 80% de la population. C'est dit : tout le monde "va y passer", avec toute l'ambiguïté que cette expression recouvre :) Annoncé avec une telle certitude, une telle inéluctabilité, alors que le confinement devrait pouvoir l'empêcher, ça donne l'impression d'être une stratégie. La même pour laquelle on moque les Anglais, bizarrement.
D'ailleurs certains ne s'en cachent pas et parlent d'étaler les cas dans le temps, d'éviter une surcharge du système médical.
Pourtant les cas Asiatiques, y compris le cas Chinois qui avait atteint des seuils pandémiques, ont réussi (pour l'instant, rien n'est garanti bien sûr) à stopper le virus. Pas à simplement l'étaler.
J'arrive vraiment pas à m'expliquer ça. J'y trouve plusieurs raisons, mais elles sont toutes tellement nulles, à l'opposé de mes valeurs, que j'ai du mal à m'en satisfaire ... (1) Plus vite on est tous immunisé ou mort, plus vite on peut arrêter le confinement. (2) Il faut que l'institution médicale fasse son travail. Si le virus se répand trop, elle sera dépassée. Mais si on le limite par des actes individuels, ça la rend obsolète, et une institution n'aime pas être obsolète. Ca parait surréaliste comme argument, mais Foucault ou Derrida ne l'aurait pas renié ... (3) 300 000 ou 600 000 morts. Ce n'est pas grave. Surtout si ce sont des vieux.
J'en profite pour revenir sur le (3). Je vois des gens comparer à la grippe, parler du faible nombre de cas, etc. Bon, déjà, il y a bien entendu l'erreur de raisonnement assez simple : on psychose avec le coronavirus car il y a un POTENTIEL. C'est pas les morts passés qui font réfléchir, mais les morts à venir. Méga-basique, mais j'ai encore vu un thread ici-même qui ignorait ça. Mais surtout, la différence c'est dans la capacité qu'on a à agir dessus. Je ne crois pas que ceux qui se choquent de la réaction au coronavirus était indifférents à la vague d'attentats qui a touché la France.
Vers quelle humanité se dirige-t-on si l'on ne fait rien ? Quel sera le poids psychologique pour une génération qui aura perdu ses grands-parents, plus rarement ses parents, ses frères et ses soeurs ?
P.S. : Pas grand chose à voir, mais je me faisais une réflexion sur un sujet qui revient dans les médias depuis quelques jours : la différence dans le ratio morts/cas totaux entre différents pays (France, Allemagne, Corée du Sud sont généralement cités). L'Allemagne a un ratio encore plus faible que la Corée du Sud qui passait pour la valeur référence. Je me disais qu'il y avait une explication logique : ce ratio est composé de 2 facteurs : - La variété des cas recensés influe sur la mortalité des cas recensés : si l'on recense des cas bénins, le taux baisse. - La variété des cas recensés influe sur la date de contraction du virus. Plus on teste des cas variés, plus on étend l'échantillon en incluant des cas qui sont très tôt dans la phase virale. Alors que les gens meurent au bout de 15 à 20 jours après contraction (~14 jours après les premiers symptômes). Si, en parallèle, il y a un phénomène d'expansion du virus (ce qui est le cas dans toute l'Europe, et pas vraiment en Asie), alors on compare des poires et des pommes. Cet écart lié au phénomène d'expansion peut être corrigée si on compare les morts sur les personnes effectivement guéries (encore que, le temps de guérison moyen est peut-être plus long que la durée moyenne conduisant à la mort).
Ca expliquerait pourquoi certains pays peuvent avoir un ratio morts/cas supérieur à la létalité estimée, et d'autres (l'Allemagne) inférieur.
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2020.03.15 16:40 bikingfencer Ezra - introductions

***EZRA  
INTRODUCTIONS  
Adam Clarke, Commentary… 1831, volume II  
At the conclusion of 2 Kings, and also of the preceding book, 2 Chronicles, we have seen the state of misery and desolation to which the kingdoms of Israel and Judah were reduced through their unparalleled ingratitude to God, and their innumerable backslidings and rebellions. These at last issued in their captivity: the inhabitants of the former country being carried away by the Assyrians, and those of the latter by the Chaldeans. The former never recovered their ancient territories; and were so disposed of by their enemies, that they either became amalgamated with the heathen nations, so as to be utterly undistinguishable, or they were transported to some foreign and recluse place of settlement, that the place of their existence, though repeatedly guessed at, has, for more the two thousand years, been totally unknown.  
In mercy to the less polluted inhabitants of the kingdom of Judah, though delivered up into the hands of their enemies, God had promised, by his prophet, that at the expiration of seventy years they should be enlarged, and restored to their own country. This prediction was most literally fulfilled; and the books of Ezra, Esther, and Nehemiah, inform us how the divine goodness accomplished this most gracious design, and the movers and agents whom he employed on the occasion. (Clarke, 1831, p. II 606)  
Robert North, S.J., The Chronicler: 1-2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, in The New Jerome Biblical Commentary, 1990  
The last books of the Hebr. [Hebrew] Bible are called “Annals” (dibrê yāmȋm [“words of days”]), i.e. [in other words], Chronicles… Chronicles is by our standards a book of history. Partly it is a dull, dry listing of genealogies, partly a collection of lively sermons… Why was this third history written, after the deuteronomistic history (Josh [Joshua] – Kgs [Kings]) and the final redaction of the Pentateuch? …  
The principal block of Chr [Chronicles] sets forth the achievement of David, chiefly the regulation of the Temple cult, narrated in 323 verses (as against only 77 in Samuel, and 73 in Chr on David’s military or civil activities). Both David’s rise to power in displacing Saul and the melancholy saga of succession to David’s throne are omitted. In exchange, the emergence of David is introduced chiefly by lengthy genealogies: his own… the Chronicler’s Levite clan…a skeletal history of the human race from Adam to Saul… Thus, from a surface look we may say that Chr was written to glorify and consolidate the ritual and dynastic authority of the Davidic covenant, almost wholly ignoring the covenant of Moses and Sinai so largely focused elsewhere in the Bible…  
Since JBC [the Jerome Biblical Commentary] there has arisen a forceful opposition to the notion of “a Chronicler including Ezra.” Hence, in this NJBC [the New Jerome Biblical Commentary] we will not longer simply presume such a unity, which in 1968 was almost unanimously agreed. “The Chronicler’s work may include Ezra, but to delineate ‘his’ theology [or his aim, or his sources] it is better to treat them apart” (M. Saebo…). Where we utilize below the word “Chronicler” it will be in reference to the hypothesis that his work included also the Ezra books. But wherever possible we will use the term “Chronicles” to refer to that work without presuppositions. Yet even the recent antagonists of such a “Chronicler” admit that we cannot evaluate the aim and authorship of either work without taking into account the arguments for and against the coalescence with Ezra. (North, 1990, pp. 362-363)  
Raymond A. Bowman, The Interpreters’ Bible, 1956, volume III  
The books known as Ezra and Nehemiah are named not for the author but for the principal personalities encountered in each. It is apparent from the versions that in antiquity all that is now included in these books was known under the title of Ezra…

Unity and Relationships  
Division into two books is first mentioned by Origen (A.D. 185-253), with the implication that such usage is Hebrew practice. But in accordance with the Talmudic tradition, the oldest Hebrew indices treat Ezra-Nehemiah as a single book, and the division into two books is not found in the Hebrew Bible until the Bomberg edition of 1525. Evidence for the original unity of the books in the Hebrew Bible is also seen in the fact that, though now separated, the Masoretic statistics and comments, usually found after each book of the Bible, are missing after Ezra 10:44, but are found for the entire work after Neh. [Nehemiah] 13:31…  
…both Eusebius and Melito of Sardis knew but “Ezra,” and the oldest Christian indices of Old Testament books recognized but a single work.

…the original literary unit was even greater than Ezra-Nehemiah. It is a striking fact that II Chr. [Chronicles] concludes abruptly in the middle of Cyrus’ edict and that II Chr. 36:22-23 is repeated in Ezra 1:1-3a, finishing the fragmentary ending of the Chronicles. The “Greek Ezra,” another recension from the Hebrew text, includes even more of Chronicles, through II Chr. 35-36. Such duplication seems a deliberate device to indicate an original connection between Ezra-Nehemiah and the books of Chronicles. The conclusion that Ezra-Nehemiah was originally part of Chronicles is further supported by the fact that the same late Hebrew language, the same distinctive literary peculiarities s that mark the style of the Chronicler, are found throughout Ezra-Nehemiah. The same presuppositions, interest, points of view, and theological and ecclesiastical conceptions so dominate all these writings that it is apparent that Chronicles-Ezra-Nehemiah was originally a literary unit, the product of one school of thought if not of a single mind, that can be called “the Chronicler.”

Canon  
In the English Bible Ezra and Nehemiah follow the Chronicles as they did originally. The English order follows the Hellenistic (Alexandrian) treatment of the books, which abolished the Jewish distinction between “the Prophets” and “the Writings.” In the tripartite division of the Hebrew Bible (Law, Prophets, and Writings) Ezra and Nehemiah, along with Chronicles, are classified not among the “prophetic books (as Samuel and Kings are), but among “the Writings” (like Psalms, Job and Ecclesiastes). Such location is a witness to their relatively late composition, when the other divisions of the Hebrew Bible were regarded as closed canonically.  
Modern printed Hebrew Bibles follow the German Hebrew manuscripts, which place Nehemiah between Daniel and Chronicles. The Babylonia Jewish practice placed Ezra and Chronicles after Esther, concluding the section of “the Writings,” while Palestinian manuscripts began “the Writings” section with Chronicles and concluded it with the single work Ezra, placed after Ester and Daniel.

Doubtless mere chance accounts for the omission of any reference to Ezra or Nehemiah in the New Testament, but there is a definite repudiation of Chronicles-Ezra-Nehemiah in the canon of the Syrian Christians… There is no Targum for Ezra-Nehemiah… The Nestorian canon and that adopted by several Monophysite groups omit all of Chronicles-Ezra-Nehemiah.

Date  
In I Chr. 3:15-24 a genealogy purporting to list the descendants of David appears to extend six generations beyond Zerubbabel (ca. ‎[approximately]‎ 520 B.C.). Counting thirty years to a generation, the last generation mentioned, which was presumably the Chronicler’s own, must be dated no earlier than ca. 350 B.C. Support for such a date is claimed in the list of high priests in Neh. 12:10 ff. ‎[and following]‎, which includes Jaddua, whom Josephus claims (cf. ‎[compare with]‎ Neh. 13:28) was high priest at the time of Alexander the Great (ca. 332 B.C.). Principally on such basis the majority of scholars now date the work of the Chronicler 350-250 B.C. Resorting to more subjective criteria for dating, such as style, vocabulary, and polemics, some urge the still later date of 300-250 B.C. or even as late as some time after Ben Sirach (ca. 180 B.C.). By thus assuming that the Chronicler was writing more than a century after the events he records, it is easy to understand why his statements can be challenged as unhistorical.  
However, there has been a reaction to such a late date for the Chronicler… the interpretation of the supporting evidence adduced from linguistic and polemic bases in other ways, the only remaining evidence for the date is the time of the last datable event in the books – the mission of Ezra.  
Those who insist that Ezra arrived in Palestine during the interval between Nehemiah’s administrations (cf. Ezra 7:8) argue for a date soon after 432 B.C. and no earlier than 433 B.C., the end of Nehemiah’s first administration. Since the Chronicler faultily places Ezra before Nehemiah… it is suggested that several generations must have elapsed for the Chronicler to have won uncomplaining acceptance of his proposed order, and the date must be about 400 B.C. …  
Such dating, which is possible only by emending Ezra 7:8, is weak in that it rests on the assumption that Ezra’s activity fell within the reign of Artaxerxes I, which is less likely than that he arrived during the time of Artaxerxes II (cf. Ezra 7:8). In the latter case the Chronicler’s work could be no earlier than 397 B.C., but with a similar allowance to that mention above of time elapsed between the activity of Ezra and the work of the Chronicler, the date of the Chronicler would be no earlier than about 365-350 B.C.

Sources  
The question of sources is closely related to that of date… The great controversy over Ezra-Nehemiah is centered in this issue. Those who posit a very late date for the Chronicler find it easy to be critical of his narrative and suspicious of his results. They insist that the few sources he employed were preserved almost literally (c.f., Nehemiah), but most of his work is thought to be his own composition, the product of his fertile imagination and therefore unhistorical… “it is evident,” so Torrey claims, “that the Chronicler became an editor more from necessity than from choice. By taste and gift he was a novelist. He would doubtless have preferred to give freer rein to his imagination in composing the story of the Jews and their antecedents. But he was now writing not to interest, but with an apologetic purpose…  
Others tend to assign to the Chronicler a date almost contemporary with the events he records in which case the sources are less important… such scholars minimize the creative activity of the Chronicler…. Therefore such such scholars give greater historical weight to the Chronicler’s narrative…  
The major difference between the two schools of interpretation thus concerns primarily that material in which the Chronicler’s style and ideas are clearly apparent…  
Even a casual reader will be impressed by the evidences of the Chronicler’s use of sources in Ezra-Nehemiah. The narrative does not always run smoothly and continuously. Gaps occur where no actual sources were available…  
Nehemiah’s Memoirs. – Although the extent of Nehemiah’s narrative is debated, no one challenges the authenticity of the memoir concerning him that the Chronicler has incorporated in his work…

Nehemiah’s memoirs, written not very long after 432 B.C. (c.f. Neh. 5:14) and preserved by the Chronicler literally, with relatively little interpolation or reworking, are one of the most accurate historical sources in the Old Testament, the only undisputed source for Jewish history between 520-175 B.C. The memoirs appear to be a memorial inscription, a type familiar in the ancient Near East. By placing his memoirs before God in the temple Nehemiah doubtless sought to stir the memory of the Lord regarding his good works and thereby to be assured of the “name” that he as a eunuch (cf. Neh. 2:1) could not obtain through his posterity… It was probably there in the temple archives that the Chronicler found Nehemiah’s text.

Lists. – As in the book of Chronicles, the editor here has a distinct liking for lists and seems to supply them whenever possible… Since one at least is falsely connected (Ezra 7:1-5), all are on trial, and in each case it is a question as to what extent the Chronicler invented them or used authentic material.  
Order  
The present chaotic order of the Ezra-Nehemiah narrative, which intermixes the story of Ezra with that of Nehemiah, is not that originally produced by the Chronicler… There is no question but what Nehemiah’s memoirs were originally a separate document but it is evident that the Chronicler has made an effort to incorporate them in the plan of his total work.  
Rudolph has stressed the symmetrical structure of the Chronicler’s original story of how, through the providence of God and the sympathetic co-operation of the Persian court, the Hebrew community and its temple, destroyed because of the sin of the people, were restored under the leadership of three men: Zerubbabel (Ezra 1:1-6:22); Ezra (Ezra 7:1-8:36…); and Nehemiah (Neh. 1:1-7:73a…) Symmetrically, each of the three episodes began with an act of grace as the Persian ruler permitted or commissioned a Jewish leader to lead his fellow Jews to Palestine form exile. In each instance those who returned promptly and vigorously began the special task of reconstruction to which they had been dedicated: rebuilding the temple (Zerubbabel); reinstituting the law (Ezra); and fortification of the city and reestablishment of the cult in the light of that law (Nehemiah). In each case the task, despite opposition, was continued to a successful conclusion, which was then celebrated as a great festival. The result was a rejuvenated community loyal to God and his law. In the light of such symmetry it is likely that for the Chronicler the story of Nehemiah ended with the ceremony of the dedication of the wall and the exclusion of all foreigners from the community (Neh. 12:27-13:3)…

The present order, which puts part of the Ezra narrative (Neh. 7:73b-8:18) in the book of Nehemiah, is due to an editor later than the Chronicler. It was apparently he too who put the name of Nehemiah in Neh. 8:9 and the reference to Ezra in Neh. 12:36 which falsely suggest that they were contemporaries in Jerusalem. That such confusion is relatively late is seen in the fact that in I Esdras and Josephus, Ezra precedes Nehemiah in Jerusalem and Nehemiah is not mentioned in I Esdras… It was perhaps this late editor, or another like him, who placed Neh. 10 at the conclusion of the Ezra story… incorporated Neh. 9:5b-37, and added the supplement in 11:22-23, which reflects substantially later times.  
The Priority of Nehemiah  
Affixing the book of Nehemiah to that of Ezra, whether by the Chronicler or by a later editor… created a chronological problem regarding the order of appearance of Ezra and Nehemiah in Jerusalem. It is natural to assume that the one mentioned first was the first to arrive, and this traditional order has many defenders…  
In solution for the chronological problem it was proposed in 1889 that Nehemiah was active under Artaxerxes I (464-423 B.C.) while Ezra, if historical, came to Jerusalem under Artaxerxes II (404-358 B.C.) This thesis, propounded, expanded, and defended for years by Albin Van Hoonacker, until it has become associated with his name, has always been under attack but has nevertheless gained many adherents.

…it is most probable that Nehemiah preceded Ezra in Palestine. Rebuttals to this view are strictly defensive and are often devious and ingenious rather than persuasive.

The chronological problem seems best solved by assigning Ezra to the period of Artaxerxes II, as suggested long ago.  
Historicity

For those who, on the basis of a theory of literal inspiration of scripture, accept Ezra-Nehemiah at its face value as historical, there is no problem of chronology or historicity, since the biblical narrative is regarded as the truth with which the present puzzling chronology is someday expected to be seen in agreement. Those at the other extreme, who hold that the Chronicler writes unhistorical fiction instead of history, forging speeches and documents and expounding his fictional “history” as he imagined it occurred, likewise have no chronological or historical problems. They reject all of the Chronicler’s views out of hand as unhistorical, and regard it impossible to know the actual historical truth of the Persian period in Palestine since Neh. 1:1-7:73a “is the only unimpeachable source for Jewish history between Haggai and Zechariah in 520-516 and I Maccabees for the period 175-135.” … Between these extremes are the many who recognize the errors and inaccuracies in the Chronicler’s narrative but also acknowledge that there is more or less historical material in his work.

It is usual to regard Ezra as the embodiment of the later particularistic and legalistic Judaism, but it is clear that he was also its fountain head. Cowley has declared:  
It was Ezra who made modern Judaism, by instituting (or re-instituting) the ceremonial law and formulating regulations for the national festivals. The books of Ezra and Nehemiah show this as clearly as the early literature shows the lack of them… The importance of the new revelation [law] is that in it we see the birth of modern Judaism, which could never have developed by natural process from pre-exilic Judaism. The subsequent development of it down to the present day is easily traced… All this is the natural growth of the system born under Ezra.  
Theological Significance  
With a more recent development of universalistic thought and of impatience with legal restrictions, especially in religion, the work of Ezra-Nehemiah has been greatly neglected, regarded as negative in character, and considered significant only for its possible factual content. Properly understood, however, the value of the work goes far beyond its historical import. Rarely in the Bible is there expressed such a sense of intimate relationship with God and consciousness of his providence as is found in Nehemiah’s frequent observations that the “hand of God” guided and defended him in his holy work… Always Nehemiah was confident that the almost impossible task of reviving the desolate Jewish community could not be accomplished without the guidance and support of God…  
The work of Ezra, too, although often scorned today because of it particularism and legalism, likewise has enduring significance when seen in proper perspective… The great prophets had declaimed against the menace of Canaanite and other foreign religious influences and had declared that continued acceptance of such seduction forces would lead to divine displeasure, exile, and destruction. Ezra admitted the truth of the prophetic contention and, recognizing that all intimate foreign contacts inherently presented an insidious possibility of contamination of the cult, he urged that such “cancerous growths” should be removed, surgically if necessary, in order that a sound Jewish cult might survive, avoiding a repetition of divine displeasure and of the destruction which had come, as the prophets had warned, because of the ready acceptance of foreign influences, particularly in religion… The real test of the value of the policy of exclusion came with the onset of the Hellenistic Age… As might be expected, some Jews accepted Hellenism and reveled in their new freedom but it was such a conservative an exclusivistic group as the Hasidim that preserved Judaism and led the way toward Christianity.  
Since Paul, Christians have looked with contempt upon the legalistic development of Judaism and have rejected the “burden” of the Law as a means of salvation. But such a view often distorts the truth. Even Paul had to combat in the church the antinomian tendencies that his words and attitudes on the subject had released. Although not all Jewish laws need to be binding upon Christians, nevertheless there were Christians laws or principles by which religious conduct must be guided, and Paul himself was often most explicit about these. There are few men with adequate religious sensitivity and discernment to understand and appreciate and make effective the law that God writes in every human heart… most men require an objective guide of conduct. Such abstractions as “holiness” and “righteousness” must be spelled out in concrete expression. The average man wants these explanations to be adequate but in minimal terms. He asks, “How far can I go and still be righteous?” or “What must I do to be saved?” Jewish law met the issue by supplying a specific code of conduct, recognized as the will of God. Strict adherence to it constituted righteousness. Therein lay both its positive force and its corrupting influence. (Bowman, 1955, pp. III 551-556, 558, 560-567)  
An Amateur's Journey Through the Bible
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2019.11.10 11:00 RadomFish Petite liste de sites pour rechercher vos ancêtres, soldats de la grande guerre (recherche nominative et simple)

Bonjour, je sors ce post le 10/11, jour précédent la commémoration de la signature de l’Armistice de 1918 à 5h15, et de fait, l’arrêt officiel des hostilités à 11h.
Vous vous en doutez mon post est loin d’être innocent. Chaque année j’assiste aux commémorations dans ma commune et je ne peux que déplorer le fait que chaque année nous sommes de moins en moins à venir se recueillir. Donc si vous pouviez y faire un tour demain, ce serait vraiment bien. Ce sont de petites cérémonies au niveau du temps passé mais c’est un moment d’Histoire important.
Vous pouvez même prendre des photos et me les envoyer je serai heureux de les poster sur les réseaux sociaux.
Enfin bref.
Je ne vais pas me lancer dans une grande explication. L’idée c’est de faire une liste des sites que j’utilise le plus souvent pour faire mes recherches sur la guerre de 1914-1918. Ce n’est pas exhaustif et je suis très loin d’être un pro, mais c’est mieux que rien. L’idée c’est de susciter votre curiosité, c’est pour cela que je n’ai pris quasiment que des sites qui permettent de chercher directement par nom de famille.
Je suis toujours, à votre service si besoin. Il me semble déjà avoir aidé quelques personnes du sub ;) et c’est toujours un plaisir.
I) Mémoire des Hommes :
Site appartenant au ministère des armées c’est de loin le plus complet, je vais vous mettre pleins de lien. Le problème de ce site c’est que certains documents sont dur d’accès dans la mesure où il faut connaitre un peu le fonctionnement du site ou avec un peu de connaissance basique dans les archives militaires.
A) Liens vers la guerre de 1914-1918.
-Mort pour la France de la 1ère GM , permet d’accéder aux fiches de décès des soldats.
https://www.memoiredeshommes.sga.defense.gouv.ffarticle.php?larub=24&titre=morts-pour-la-france-de-la-premiere-guerre-mondiale
-Fusillés de la 1ère GM, si un soldat est fusillé il n’est pas Mort pour la France, donc il est ici. Les dossiers de procès menant à la condamnation à mort sont numérisés et disponible en ligne librement.
https://www.memoiredeshommes.sga.defense.gouv.ffarticle.php?larub=211&titre=fusilles-de-la-premiere-guerre-mondiale
-Personnel aéronautique de guerre, 1ère GM . Si votre ancêtre était dans l’armée de l’air, qu’il soit mort à la guerre ou pas, il est probablement indexé dans cette base de donnée.
https://www.memoiredeshommes.sga.defense.gouv.ffarticle.php?larub=25&titre=personnels-de-l-aeronautique-militaire
-Journaux des unités engagées dans la 1ère GM. Aussi appelé J.M.O c’est la trace écrite jour par jour de ce qui se passe dans l’unité. C’est une mine d’or mais il faut savoir chercher. Vous pouvez demander de l’aide si besoin.
https://www.memoiredeshommes.sga.defense.gouv.ffarticle.php?larub=2&titre=journaux-des-unites-engagees-dans-la-premiere-guerre-mondiale
-Historique régimentaires des unités éngagées dans la 1ère GM. Ce que j’appelle les Livres d’or des unités. Rédigés après guerre. C’est un condensé du J.M.O facilement lisible. Lissant la vérité, apportant des précisions, expliquant les faits d’armes et plus important, contenant parfois une liste des morts du régiment.
https://www.memoiredeshommes.sga.defense.gouv.ffarticle.php?larub=51&titre=historiques-regimentaires-des-unites-engagees-dans-la-1re-guerre-mondiale
B) Liens transversaux
-Liste des sépultures de guerre. Si le soldat est enterré dans un cimetière militaire, carré militaire, ossuaire ou autre édifice du même type alors le lieu doit apparaitre ici.
https://www.memoiredeshommes.sga.defense.gouv.ffarticle.php?larub=44&titre=sepultures-de-guerre
II) Le Grand mémorial
Encore plus simple et pratique que mémoire des hommes nous avons le grand mémorial. Il permet avec une extrême facilité de retrouver les documents nominatifs basiques des soldats de la guerre de 14-18. En particulier les fiches matricules, mais aussi les fiches de décès et la présence sur les livres d’or municipaux. Néanmoins juste passer par ce site est pour moi une erreur.
http://www.culture.fGenealogie/Grand-Memorial
III) La Croix Rouge
La croix rouge Française existait déjà en 14-18. Elle aidait les soldats notamment dans les camps de prisonniers. Elle conserve donc des archives nominatives qui ont été numérisées et mise en ligne. Ce sont des archives relatives aux prisonniers de guerre français.
https://grandeguerre.icrc.org/fr
IV) Le tableau d’Honneur de la Guerre de 14-18.
C’est un document composés de 658 planches papiers pour un total de 16489 personnes. Ces personnes sont des hommes et femmes médaillés de la Légion d’Honneur ou de la médaille militaire. Chaque personne est accompagnée d’une photographie ce qui est très rare. J’ai 2 liens :
Le premier http://jeanluc.dron.free.fth/THindex.htm est un index ODS du nom et prénom de toutes les personnes citées. Le deuxième lien est celui vers les documents numérisés. https://www.lillustration.com/LE-TABLEAU-D-HONNEUR-de-la-Guerre-1914-1918_a350.html
V) MémorialGenWeb
Le site compile les relevés de monument aux morts et autres plaques commémoratives. De la recherche nominative est possible. Cela permet de savoir sur quel monument est écrit le nom de la personne que vous recherchez. D’autres informations sont parfois données comme les citations ou médailles militaires.
http://www.memorialgenweb.org/memorial3/html/findex.php
VI) Archives Nationales
-Les livres d’or des communes. Chaque soldat Français mort pour la France est normalement consigné dans le livre d’or de sa commune d’habitat ou de naissance. Le site est très mal fait mais : -Vous sélectionnez le département concerné, un nouvel onglet va s’ouvrir il faut aller dans « archives numérisées ». Il faut ensuite cliquer sur la commune que vous voulez et vous aurez accès aux documents voulus.
https://www.siv.archives-nationales.culture.gouv.fsiv/cms/content/helpGuide.action?template=&preview=false&uuid=16e841bb-ffaa-4359-bf09-9714cb25c1ac
-Recherches avancées nominatives : Je sors un peu de la 1ère GM mais cela peut vous aider. Les Archives Nationales possèdent un onglet « recherche avancée » en haut, et un sous dossier de recherche intitulé « Dossiers Nominatifs » en tappant le nom vous pouvez trouver des choses.
VII) Gallica
C’est un site très complet, ce qui m’intéresse ici c’est la presse.
-La Gazette des Ardennes : La gazette des Ardennes est un journal de propagande Allemand rédigé en Français à destination des Français. Outre des articles de propagande habituels se trouve la liste officielle des prisonniers Français en Allemagne. C’est franchement très utile même si il est parfois compliqué de trouver ce que l’on cherche. La recherche automatique de Gallica est très bien mais pas infaillible donc essayés avec plusieurs orthographe etc..
https://gallica.bnf.fark:/12148/cb344103281/date
-La recherche des disparus : organe de l’Association : Je ne l’ai jamais utilisé mais c’est de la presse recensent des civils ou militaires portés disparus par la famille.
https://gallica.bnf.fark:/12148/cb32848956w/date
IIX) Les archives municipales et départementales
-Les Archives départementales : Chaque département à un site pour ces archives, certaines sont numérisés comme les Etat civils et les Fiche matricules, il faut aussi savoir regarder les côtes et se déplacer au besoin. L’accès aux archives sur place est toujours gratuit mais est soumis à certaines conditions donc attention à bien vous renseigner.
-Les Archives communales : Ce sont des archives plus complexes d’accès. Théoriquement le refus motivé est impossible, mais en réalité il faut voir avec la mairie car c’est loin d’être simple pour eux. Mais vous pouvez tomber sur des documents incroyables sur lesquels je ne vais pas m’étendre.
IX) Portait de poilus
Le site d’un certain Tadoukoz, c’est une personne qui bénévolement et avec l’aide d’autres passionés essaye d’obtenir le plus de photos de soldats possible, soldats identifiés lorsque c’est possible et de les mettre ensuite sur à disposition de tous. Si vous avez des photos avec un ancêtre en uniforme et clairement identifié faites lui parvenir c’est toujours sympa.
http://www.tadoukoz.net/piwigo/index.php?/category/font-size4portraits-de-poilus-font
FIN : C’était la petite liste que je voulais vous faire parvenir. J’utilise d’autres sites pour des recherches liées mais pas directement nominatives donc je ne vous embête pas avec.
En espérant que cela vous aide je reste bien entendu à votre écoute en cas de recherche ;)
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2019.11.08 17:12 Neker Liste des articles et vidéos du *Réveilleur* sur le thème de l'énergie

Outre
ce qui fait tout le charme et l'attrait du Réveilleur c'est l'aspect artisanal et fait-maison de sa production.
Le même charme artisanal fait qu'il est parfois un peu délicat de se repérer et de naviguer dans cette œuvre qui commence à prendre une ampleur certaine.
Je vous propose donc ce petit recensement à date, sous forme de tableau.
J'ai ciblé le thème de l'énergie, il y en a d'autres. Et bien sûr, si nous nous intéressons de si près à l'énergie, c'est que toute la question du changement climatique en découle.
Lien Date
L’énergie et nous – Énergie#1 17 avril 2018
L’hydroélectricité – Énergie#2 15 mai 2018
L’éolien – Énergie#3 29 mai 2018
Le photovoltaïque – Énergie#4 26 juillet 2018
L’IA face aux défis énergétiques (ft. Science4All) 30 juillet 2018
Le solaire thermique – Énergie#5 11 septembre 2018
Ma visite à Bure 25 septembre 2018
Le solaire à concentration – Énergie#6 2 octobre 2018
Électricité verte selon Greenpeace: l'écologie dogmatique 14 novembre 2018
Stockage de l’énergie sous forme mécanique: STEP, volant d’inertie et air comprimé – énergie#7 8 janvier 2019
Un stockage en béton ? – Énergie#7.5 26 avril 2019
La radioactivité et notre exposition aux rayonnements ionisants – Énergie#8 30 janvier 2019
Hiroshima, Tchernobyl, Fukushima… les morts du nucléaire – Énergie#9 8 mai 2019
Les ressources d’uranium – Énergie#10 1er juillet 2019
Fonctionnement des centrales nucléaires – ÉNERGIE#11 26 juillet 2019
De la centrale aux déchets radioactifs – DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS #1 19 septembre 2019
Peut-on faire disparaître les déchets radioactifs ? – DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS #2 10 octobre 2019
Gestion des déchets nucléaires et démantèlement – DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS #3 4 novembre 2019
(...à suivre...)
addendum : ++ "Greenpeace", que j'avais raté tout à l'heure, et d'ailleurs jamais visionné jusqu'alors, et qui pourtant fondamentale.
submitted by Neker to france [link] [comments]


2019.11.08 16:46 Neker Liste des articles et vidéos du *Réveilleur* sur le thème de l'énergie

Outre
ce qui fait tout le charme et l'attrait du Réveilleur c'est l'aspect artisanal et fait-maison de sa production.
Le même charme artisanal fait qu'il est parfois un peu délicat de se repérer et de naviguer dans cet œuvre qui commence à prendre une ampleur certaine.
Je vous propose donc ce petit recensement à date, sous forme de tableau.
J'ai ciblé le thème de l'énergie, il y en a d'autres. Et bien sûr, si nous nous intéressons de si près à l'énergie, c'est que toute la question du changement climatique en découle.
Lien Date
L’énergie et nous – Énergie#1 17 avril 2018
L’hydroélectricité – Énergie#2 15 mai 2018
L’éolien – Énergie#3 29 mai 2018
Le photovoltaïque – Énergie#4 26 juillet 2018
L’IA face aux défis énergétiques (ft. Science4All) 30 juillet 2018
Le solaire thermique – Énergie#5 11 septembre 2018
Ma visite à Bure 25 septembre 2018
Le solaire à concentration – Énergie#6 2 octobre 2018
Stockage de l’énergie sous forme mécanique: STEP, volant d’inertie et air comprimé – énergie#7 8 janvier 2019
La radioactivité et notre exposition aux rayonnements ionisants – Énergie#8 30 janvier 2019
Un stockage en béton ? – Énergie#7.5 26 avril 2019
La radioactivité et notre exposition aux rayonnements ionisants – Énergie#8 30 janvier 2019
Hiroshima, Tchernobyl, Fukushima… les morts du nucléaire – Énergie#9 8 mai 2019
Fonctionnement des centrales nucléaires – ÉNERGIE#11 26 juillet 2019
De la centrale aux déchets radioactifs – DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS #1 19 septembre 2019
Gestion des déchets nucléaires et démantèlement – DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS #3 4 novembre 2019
(...à suivre...)
submitted by Neker to test [link] [comments]


2019.10.25 19:16 Belgooly1 LAYERS OF INTERPOLATION IN TESTAMONIAN FLAVIAN

KEN OLSON has done a thesis showing the TF being more Eusebian than Josephean, [1] Eusebius was the first church father to introduce it and therefore has come under suspicion of being the interpolater.Yet it is unlikely that Eusebius created the entire text ex nihilo. It is more likely that Eusebius simply "improved" the wording of the available manu­scripts. In fact we can track the evolution of this passage!
A significant advance in understanding the evolutionary his­tory of the Testimonium came in 1971 when the Jewish scholar Shlomo Pines published An Arabic Version of the Testimonium Flavianum and its lmplications. [2] In a linguistic tour de force, Pines traced the translation and citation history of the Testimonium and demonstrated beyond reasonable doubt that an earlier form of the piece was not as outrageously Christian as the received text.In this version it does not blame the Jews for the death of Jesus. The key phrase "at the suggestion of the principal men among us" reads instead "Pilate condemned him to be crucified".Pines' monograph drew attention to a long-known tenth­ century Arabic historical work, the "Kitāb al-Únwān" by Agapus, the Melkite bishop ofManbij (Hierapolis). In his (apparently indirect) quotation from Josephus, Agapius supplies what would appear to be the earliest form of the Testimonian.
“Similarly Josephus the Hebrew. For he says in the treatises that he has written on the governance of the Jews: "At this time there was a wise man who was called Jesus. His conduct was good, and [he] was known to be virtuous. And many people from among the Jews and the other nations became his disciples. Pilate condemned him to be crucified and to die. But those who had become his disciples did not abandon his discipleship. They reported that he had appeared to them three days after his cru­cifixion, and that he was alive; accordingly, he was perhaps the Messiah, concerning whom the prophets have recounted won­ders." This is what is said by Josephus and his companions of our Lord the Messiah, may he be glorified.”~Arabic version.
As there is a close connection between Agapius' version and Michael's, [Michael the Syrian] the resemblance between the latter and St. Jerome's text might, lead to the conclusion that the distinctive traits of Agapius' version might have been produced in the Syriac or Arabic period. However, during this period the Testimonium was being transmitted by Christian historiographers. Agapius and also, as far as we can judge, his sources accept in a very devout spirit all the legendary stories concerning the life of Jesus. To me it is inconceivable that he or they could of their own accord have added the sceptical or non-committal note represented by the word “reported”, or weakened the references to Jesus' extraordinary qualities and actions occurring in the first two sentences of the vulgate recension. They must have found the distinctive char­acteristics of Agapius' recension in the text of the Testimonium handed down to them."~
————————————————
Shlomo Pines also discovered a 12th-century Syriac version of the Testimonium in the chronicle of Michael the Syrian.Although the Chronicle of Michael the Syrian dates to nearly three centuries later than Agapius, he too reports a version of the Testimonian that is more primitive than the received text, but more "evolved" than that preserved by Agapius. Shlomo Pines renders his version as follows:
“The writer Josephus also says in his work on the institutions of the Jews: In these times there was a wise man named Jesus, if it is fitting for us to call him a man. For he was a worker of glo­ rious deeds and a teacher of truth. Many from among the Jews and the nations became his disciples. He was thought to be the Messiah [or Perhaps he was the Messiah] . But not according to the testimony of the principal [men] of [our] nation. Because of this, Pilate condemned him to the cross, and he died. For those who had loved him did not cease to love him. He appeared to them alive after three days. For the prophets of God had spoken with regard to him of such marvelous things [as these]. And the people of the Christians, named after him, has not disappeared till day”
Instead of "he was Christ", the Syriac version has the phrase "he was believed to be Christ". Drawing on these textual variations, scholars have suggested that these versions of the Testimonium more closely reflect an earlier form of the Testamonian. (This is close to Jeromes attestation).St. Jerome [c340-420] made a Latin translation of the Testimonium in On Illustrious Men, ch13 in his discussion of Josephus. It too is in one respect less developed than the received text with respect to the Messianic identity of Jesus:
“He [Josephus] wrote about the Lord in this way: "At about this time there was a wise man, Jesus, if it is proper to call him a man. He was the doer of marvelous deeds and teacher of those who receive truth willingly. He had many followers both among the Jews and the Gentiles, and he was believed to be the Christ [Messiah] . When, because of the envy of our principal men, Pilate had condemned him to the cross, those who at the first had come to love him persevered in faith. Living, he appeared to them on the third day. These and countless other marvels about him the prophecies of the prophets had foretold. And up until today the tribe of Christians, named after him, has not disappeared”.
Although Jerome lived a generation later than Eusebius, his Latin version of the Testamonian is more primitive than the received Greek text preserved in the latter's Historia Ecclesiastica [Eusibius] and in most manuscripts of Josephus. It will be noted that Jerome retains the dubitative "he was believed to be the Christ," making it clear that the Greek text Jerome owned did not ascribe the belief in Jesus' messiahship to Josephus himself. [As a matter of interest the Greek translation of De Viris Illustrious has eliminated all differ­ences and reads exactly the same as the received text of Eusibius!]—————————————————- Slavonic
Before the thirteenth century, in Constantinople or its environs, a mutant form of the Testi­monium found its way into the Greek text of the Wars.Translated into Old Russian, producing the so-called ‘Slavonic Josephus.' The material corresponding to the beginning of the Testimonium was inserted between the third and fourth paragraphs of the ninth chapter of Book 2 of the Wars.
“At that time there appeared a certain man, if it is meet to call him a man. His nature and form was human, but the appear­ ance of him more than (that) of a human (being): yet his works (were) divine. He wrought miracles wonderful and strong. Wherefore it is impossible for me to call him a human (being, simply). But on the other hand, if I look at (his) characteristic (human) nature, I will not call him an angel.And all, whatsoever he wrought through an invisible power, he wrought by a word and command. Some said of him, "our first lawgiver is risen from the dead, and hath evidenced this by many cures and prodigies." But the others thought he was (a man) sent from God. Now in many things he opposed the Law and kept not the Sabbath according to the custom of (our) forefathers. Yet again, he did nothing shameful nor underhand.And many of the multitude followed after him and hear­ kened to his teaching. And many souls were roused, thinking that thereby the Jewish tribes could free themselves from Roman hands. But it was his custom rather to abide without the city on the Mount of Olives. There also he granted cures to the people. And there gathered to him of helpers 150, but of the crowd a multitude.But when they saw his power, that he accomplished by a word whatsoever he would, and when they had made known to him their will, that he should enter the city and cut down the Roman tropo s and Pilate, and rule over them, he heeded it not. And when thereafter news of it was brought to the Jewish leaders, they assembled together with the high priest and said, "We are powerless and (too) weak to resist the Romans. Since howev­ er the bow is bent, we will go and communicate to .Pilate what we have heard, and we shall be free from trouble, in order that he may not hear (it) from others and we be robbed of(our) goods and ourselves slaughtered and (our) children dispersed."And they went and reported (it) to Pilate. And he sent and had many ofthe multitude slain. And he had that wonder-worker brought up, and after he had held an inquiry concerning him, he pronounced (this) judgment: "He is (a benefactor, but not) a male­ factor (nor) a rebel (nor) covetous of king(ship)." And he let him go, for he had healed his dying wife. And after he had gone to his wonted place, he did his wonted works. And when more people again gathered round him, he glorified himself by his action(s) more than all.The scribes (therefore) being stung with envy gave Pilate thirty talents to kill him. And he took (it) and gave them liberty to car out their will (themselves). And they took him and cru­cified him contrary to the law of (their) fathers.”
Hugh J. Schonfield, an expert on the ancient "Jewish Christians," has shown quite convincingly that Jewish Christian writings underlie the expansion of the text of Slavonic Josephus.
ATTEMPT TO RECONSTRUCT THE ORIGINAL
Stephen C. Carlson ( see link at end of post) [3] has followed up a curious footnote in Meiers book “A Marginal Jew” Vol 1 page 101, footnote 12, where it has been studied ( by Franz Dornsieff, “Lukas der Schriftsteller. Mit einem Anhang: Josephus und Tacitus,” ZNW 35 (1936): 148-55.), that Tacitus has used Josephus as one of his sources. Because of this he may have preserved the original TF, ( before Eusibius got his dirty hands on it)! Here is what the reconstruction may have looked like:
TESTIMONIAN FLAVIAN RECONSTRUCTION FROM TACITUS
“Now there was about this time a man, an innovator and deceiver of the people. Through his sorcery and innovations he drew over to him many Galileans and by them he was seen to be a King: For fear of the influence of a great many people, he suffered the extreme penalty at the hands of governor (ἡγεμών), Pilate who condemned him to be crucified. Many of his followers, the Galileans were slain and thus checked for the moment. The movement again broke out with wild fury and mischievous superstition not only in Judæa, the first source of the evil, but even in Rome, where all things hideous and shameful from every part of the world find their centre and become popular.”
As can be seen from Annals15:44, the entirety of Tacitus’s information about Jesus is paralleled in Josephus, AJ 18, if not in the Testimonium, then nearby in the book. Even more significant, Tacitus’ use of Josephus explains the erroneous title for Pontius Pilate as a governor (ήγεμών). The Greek term Josephus uses for Pilate elsewhere (ἡγεμών), [An example of Josephus using “ἡγεμὼν” is in Ant18.3.1 as a title for Pilate], was non-specific, and Tacitus had to guess (and guess incorrectly) what Pilate’s Latin title would have been. (This would argue against Tacitus having a Roman source and would argue in favor of Josephus being his source).[As a side note:His title is given as procurator in Tacitus. Pontius Pilate's title was traditionally thought to have been "procurator of Judea" since the Roman historian Tacitus (writing in the second century AD) refers to him as such. However, the Pilate stone (a fragmentary Latin inscription that records the name of 'Pontius Pilate comes from the Tiberium') refers to him as "prefect of Judea". Pilate would have been a prefect at the time of Jesus. “Prefects" were governors in charge of parts of larger provinces. Pilate was removed from office because of his treatment of the Samaritan ( Ant 18.4.1) After this, as it turns out, it was not until the rule of the emperor Claudius (who governed from 41 to 54 AD) that the title of the Roman governors changed from "prefect" (ἔπαρχος) to "procurator". (επίτροπος)]
—————————————————–
I’ve built on top of Carlson’s reconstruction with the following reasons:• On one of the four points where the TF meets the Annals, it uses the phrase “mischievous superstition”. I thought that was rather Tacitean and replaced it with ‘innovator’ and ‘deceiver’ which is more Josephean.• I replaced the line, “He drew over to him both many of the Jews and many of the Gentiles.” With “ He drew over to him many Galileans” as the original line sounds Paulinist. Also the early followers of Jesus were known as Galileans, as attested by Epitetus, Diss.4.7.6. Circa110-115AD (Cf Luke13.1-2; Mark14:70).Diss. 4.7.6: “Well then, if madness can cause people to adopt such as attitude towards these things [not being scared at the swords of tyrants] and habit too, as in the case of the Galileans, can’t reason and demonstration teach people that God ha made all that is in the universe, and the universe itself as a whole, to be free…”This passage shows that Christians were known to be persecuted by the Emperor Nero, and Epictetus had been within close proximity to the Emperor’s household.• As with many messianic figure followers reported in Josephus works, they usually declared the would be leader a King, this is reflected in the reconstruction.•Agapius Arabic version does not blame the Jews for the death of Jesus. The key phrase "at the suggestion of the principal men among us" reads instead "Pilate condemned him to be crucified". This is reflected in the reconstruction.• The Syriac version has the phrase “he was believed to be Christ” instead of "he was the Christ"Origen attested that Josephus did not like the term “Christ” so I left that out (Contra Celsus I.47).• The TF could not have been neutral because of what was written before and after it. I stated the Galileans were slain because of the opening line of this Ant 18.3.4“About the same time also another sad calamity put the Jews into disorder: ~Ant18.3.4 and also see what was written before it:- “Who laid upon them much greater blows than Pilate had commanded them; and equally punished those that were tumultuous, and those that were not. Nor did they spare them in the least.“~ Ant18.3.2• The interpolation of the TF into Slavonic Josephus Wars also does not name Jesus in the passage but refers to him as “there appeared a certain man”~Slavonic Wars2.9.3/4. This could have been a more primitive interpolation than Eusibius’ interpolation. The most telling part about the Slavonic version is that it said everything about Jesus but his name, that very fact could have been preserved along a separate transmission line that Jesus was not named in the original. I have gone for this in the reconstruction above. This and the fact of the TF being a negative original could explain why Origen never cited this passage in all his works.Whealy [4] (in page13 of link) makes a very astute observation that "Yet before Origen no Christian writer apparently found it worthwhile to cite Josephus as a relevant authority on anything in the New Testament; not only did they not cite Josephus on Jesus, they did not cite Josephus on James the brother of Jesus, John the Baptist, the several parallels shared by Luke-Acts and Josephus works, and perhaps most surprisingly, they did not name Josephus an authority on King Herod, a figure that dominates three and a half books of Antiquities".————————————————— Here is the original TF:Ant18.64-65 ( Ant18.3.3 AKA TF) “Now there was about this time Jesus, a wise man, if it be lawful to call him a man; for he was a doer of wonderful works, a teacher of such men as receive the truth with pleasure. He drew over to him both many of the Jews and many of the Gentiles. He was [the] Christ. And when Pilate, at the suggestion of the principal men amongst us, had condemned him to the cross, those that loved him at the first did not forsake him; for he appeared to them alive again the third day; as the divine prophets had foretold these and ten thousand other wonderful things concerning him. And the tribe of Christians, so named from him, are not extinct at this day.”
A DIFFERENT JAMES PASSAGEOur reconstruction does not bode well for the current James passage, Ant 20.200, as there is no mention of Jesus or an abhorant word to the Jew Josephus - the word 'Christ'. But this is not a problem as Origen in his attestation of the James passage was on about a different James.Was James the brother of Jesus originally in Josephus?We all suspect interpolations, what is more interesting is what was cut out from Josephus. All James references (opposition to Paul gentile movement), derogatory Jesus references etc.Lets examine this Christian tradition blaming the fall of Jerusalem to the death of James.[TRACKING THE SOURCES].Although nowhere to be found in the extant Josephus, it is quoted by Eusebius – who implies it is from Wars – in the following manner:“And these things happened to the Jews to avenge James the Just, who was the brother of Jesus, the so-called Christ, for the Jews put him to death, notwithstanding his preeminent Righteousness.”(EH2.23.20)On close analysis, it is clear Eusebius or the Josephus he saw means James.Origen reproduces something of the same idea, though he claims Josephus referred to it in the Antiquities. Since Josephus’ Antiquities does not encompass a discussion of the fall of the Temple per se as Wars does, it is more likely that Eusebius is more correct in this matter. Origen gives the tradition as follows:“So great a reputation among the people for Righteousness did this James enjoy, that Flavius Josephus, who wrote the Antiquities of the Jews in Twenty Books, when wishing to show the cause what the people suffered so great misfortunes that even the Temple was razed to the ground, said that these things happened to them in accordance with the Wrath of God in consequence of the things which they had dared to do against James the brother of Jesus who is called the Christ.”(Contra Cel 1.47)Then he adds:“The wonderful thing is, that though he did not accept Jesus as Christ, he yet gave testimony that the Righteousness of James was so great; and he says that the people thought that they had suffered these things because of [what had been done to] James.” ( Commentary on Matthew 10.17)This is extremely interesting testimony and hardly something either Origen or Eusebius would or could have dreamed up entirely by themselves, because it contradicts authoritative Church doctrine, which rather ascribed the fall of Jerusalem, as Origen “himself contends, to Jesus’ death, not James’. (Contra Cel 2.13)Jerome too gives us a version of this tradition about James:“This same Josephus records the tradition that this James was of such great Holiness and repute among the people that the downfall of Jerusalem was believed to be on account of his death.”(Vir ill 2)[Lives of illustrious men].Jerome is a careful scholar; one must assume that he saw something of what he says. Perhaps the nonsense Paulina and Fulvia episodes that follow the suspicious-sounding account of the crucifixion of Christ in Book Eighteen replaced some more extensive commentary of the kind Jerome says he saw in Book Eighteen, which included the material about Jerusalem falling ‘because of the death of James the Apostle’, not Jesus.Epiphanius too calls James a nazorite (Panarian 29.5.7). From other sources like the Pseudoclementine Homilies and Recognitions, we shall be able to show how James is leader of the Jerusalem Church does send out Apostles and others on overseas missions. Paul confirms this when he discusses the ‘some from James’ that are sent down to check into affairs in Antioch in Galatians 2:12.The only other early author (apart from the disputed Josephus) to mention James before the close of the second century C.E. is Hegesippus (cf. Fragments from the Acts of the Church; Concerning the Martyrdom of James, the Brother of the Lord, from Book 5), who as early as c. 165 - 175AD tells his reader in great detail that James (as brother of the Lord) was hurled from the top of the Temple and then because he survived this attempt on his life he was then summarily stoned to death. Hegesippus also tells us that this happened immediately before the destruction of the Temple by Vespasian and as such it would point to a date of c. 68 - 70ADThese argue strongly for the authenticity of Hegesippus’ detailed description of James and the existence of a much longer exegetical work on the death of James in the manner of the pesharim at Qumran, upon which this was based.The first is the allusion to a key scriptural passage, Isaiah 3:10–11. Not only is this Zaddik passage exactly parallel to ones like those in the Habakkuk and Psalm 37 Peshers applied to the death of the Righteous Teacher at Qumran, but its vocabulary was actually absorbed into the former of these. The second feature is the application to James of this important conceptuality of the ‘Zaddik’ or ‘Righteous One’.————————————————————-So to sum up Origen in two works, Contra Celsus and his Commentary on Matthew, claims to have found in his copy of the Antiquities by Josephus a passage attributing the fall of Jerusalem to the death of James, not Jesus. Eusebius claims something similar but he claims to have seen it in WARS.In normative Christian usage, Jesus is considered to have predicted both the downfall of Jerusalem and the destruction of the Temple, and Origens outrage at having come upon these passages in the copy of Josephus available to him – presumably in the library at Caesarea on the Palestine coast, where Eusebius too had later been Bishop – and Eusebius’ own concern over this discrepancy, might be not a little connected to its disappearance in all extant copies about James in Josephus’ works.----------------------------------------------------SO HOW DID IT HAPPEN WE HAVE THE CURRENT JAMES PASSAGE?Allen [5] in the paper linked below (chapter 4 , p 291-328) goes one step further than Carrier in claiming that the James passage in “Antiquities of the Jews” (AJ) was not an inter linear scribal error but an actual Christian interpolation.————————————————————ORIGEN AND THE ”JAMES THE JUSTICE” PASSAGE IN Antiquities by Josephus (Ant20.9.1)You can see from the following two quotes by Origen that Josephus never liked to use the term ‘Christ’.CONTRA CELSIUM Book1 ch. 47 ( Origen)“Now this writer [i.e. Josephus], although not believing in Jesus as the Christ....”COMMENTARY ON MATTHEW X 17 (Origen)“And the wonderful thing is, that, though he did not accept Jesus as Christ, he yet gave testimony that the righteousness of James was so great; and he says that the people thought that they had suffered these things because of James.”————————————————————JOSEPHUS DID NOT LIKE THE TERM ‘CHRIST’.According to Origen (cf. COM, X.17 / 5268 - 5269; Cels, I, 47),we are able to confirm that Josephus did not accept Jesus as the “Christ”.You can clearly see Josephus did not like to use the term ‘Christ’ in relation to Jesus.It is interesting that Josephus would have mentioned the word “Christ” considering how quickly he denigrates any other supposed messianic upstarts in all of his other writings.Why Josephus says “James the brother of Jesus who is called Christ” and not say “James the son of Joseph” which is the proper Jewish form of address. Origen quotes the James Passage practically verbatim - even inappropriately referring to a Jewish male as “the brother” of another individual;I would like people to note what Allen missed->[At the start of 20.9.1 there is a high priest Joseph mentioned who was deprived of his position by Agrippa, perhaps James is the son of Joseph.]Instead of"brother of Jesus, who was called Christ, whose name was James"It originally should have read"James son of Joseph".This makes much more sense that Carriers explanation and it fits as there is a high priest named Joseph deposed at the start of the passage.The assurances of many Christian scholars, it is difficult to see how the James Passage (JP) [A]* can in any way appear as an innocent text. (See relevant passages below in footnotes.)For the James passage to be authentic then the earlier passage the Testimonium Flavian (TF) [B]* would have to be authentic too. But we know this TF passage was not in Origen’s copy of “Antiquities of the Jews”(AJ). To take any other stance would seriously question why Josephus would have expected his reader to know who Jesus (of Nazareth) was in the James Passage.Origen relies SOLELY on what is surely the James Passage in his attempts to justify that it was the death of Jesus, and not James, that caused the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem makes it far more likely to presume that the TF DID NOT EXIST in Origen’s version of the AJ.————————————————————ORIGEN AS SUSPECTED INTERPOLATORIf one simply reviews the actual statements made by Origen, it should be regarded as pertinent that he uses almost exactly the same wording as is contained in the current form of the JP (i.e. “the brother of Jesus, who was called Christ, whose name was James”) to describe James, viz.:1. COM, X, 17 / 5268: “James the brother of Jesus who is called Christ”;2. Cels, I, 47: “James the Just, who was a brother of Jesus called Christ”; and3. Cels, II, 13: “James the Just, the brother of Jesus who was called Christ”.Origen mentions Josephus' reference to James on four occasions: twice in his COM, X, 17 / 5268 – 5269, once in Cels. I, 47 and again in his Cels. II, 13Suspected interpolation (i.e. “the brother of Jesus, who was called Christ”), if foul play is speculated it is almost certain that Origen (rightly or wrongly), will be amongst the more likely suspects.The interpolator merely used this convenient point in line 200 of Josephus’ account of Ananus’ atrocities to ensure the inclusion of the following few mission-critical words: “Jesus who was called Christ”.The suspected Christian interpolator merely used the cursory reference to the stoned man and some compatriots as a useful device.————————————————————CALLED CHRIST HAS GOSPEL TRADITION:The participial phrase “(who is/who was) called Christ” (c.f. Antiquities, 20.9.1.200) does not actually include the verb “to be”. This is simply added into the English translation.This is literally what it says in Greek:“…and having brought before them (the council) the brother of Jesus, who being called Christ, James - his name…”The participial phrase indeed matches the gospels. There is NO implication of PAST TENSE in «Ἰησοῦ τοῦ λεγομένου Χριστοῦ». And there’s no way to rephrase it to imply a present tense more explicitly.Since, in the context of the current form of the text, Jesus is assumed to have died previously, it is totally appropriate to translate it in English as “...was called...”. The Greek phrasing should be totally non-controversial.The same expression “called Christ” is both John 4:25 and Matthew 1:16: “of whom was born Jesus, who is called Christ.” The phrase is found in a similar form in Matthew two more times, then in 27:17 and 27:22; and the author of the Gospel of Matthew has Pilate both times designating Jesus as that “Jesus who is called Christ”. The manner of letting a non-Christian witness identify Jesus as the one who was “called Christ” can accordingly be traced back to the Gospels. This would reasonably imply that it would not have felt unnatural for a Christian person with knowledge of the Gospel accounts to designate Jesus as the one called Christ, if he later found that Josephus ought to have mentioned Jesus.“Called Christ” are the EXACT SAME phrase in different grammatical cases (nominative for ‘subject', accusative for ‘direct object' and genitive for 'possessive’).So what we observe in the English translations is a juxtaposition of the tense forms of “to be”, where past tense (“was”) is appropriate for Josephus and Origen (narrating events after Jesus’ death); while present tense (“is”) is appropriate for the Gospels (narrating events during Jesus’ life). English translators are forced to make a choice, while the Greek authors were not bound by such rules.Ἰησοῦ τοῦ λεγομένου Χριστοῦ (genitive).(Iêsou tou legomenou Christou)Jesus who (was) called Christ(Antiquities of the Jews 20:200).Ἰησοῦς ὁ λεγόμενος Χριστός (nominative)(Iêsous ho legomenos Christos)Jesus, who (is) called Christ (Matt 1:16).ὁ λεγόμενος Χριστός (nominative)(ho legomenos Christos)he] who ( is)called Christ (John 4:25).Ἰησοῦν τὸν λεγόμενον Χριστόν (accusative)(Iêsoun ton legomenon Christon)Jesus who (is) called Christ (Matt 27:17).Ἰησοῦν τὸν λεγόμενον Χριστόν (accusative)(Iêsoun ton legomenon Christon)with Jesus who (is) called Christ (Matt 27:22).———————————————————-
WHAT’S MISSING/ WHAT’S ADDED?? (From passage)As stated in line 199 this makes little sense. For example, was Josephus telling us that Ananus simply liked to have individuals executed without justifiable cause, and was merely waiting for the opportune moment when he was not under Roman authority to give vent to his sadistic temperament?Or, is something now missing from the original text, immediately before line 200, which formerly gave the correct account of why Ananus needed to get rid of the unknown man or men in question?However, in the current version, the reader is none the wiser. This is in fact quite noticeable if one has the eyes to see, because after supposedly giving his reader no clear motive for the arrests, Josephus then goes to great lengths (lines 201 – 203) to explain that the charges against the men were not justified. These three lines would only make sense if, before line 200, the reader had been told the nature of the charges and the context behind them being levelled at the men in question.It might also be consider that originally the JP (or preceding text), was somewhat longer than it now appears, and once included the genuine reasons behind Ananus’ urgent need to make use of the opportune death of Festus to dispatch his enemies. Here, the unknown Christian interpolator may well have removed one (or possibly two), sentences that originally gave the reader the correct names of the offenders (as well as the true nature of their crime). He then inserted this most convenient of phrases: “the brother of Jesus, who was called Christ, whose name was James”.After supposedly giving his reader no clear motive for the arrests, Josephus then goes to great lengths (lines 201 – 203) to explain that the charges against the men were not justified. These three lines would only make sense if, before line 200, the reader had been told the nature of the charges and the context behind them being levelled at the men in question.————————————————————CONCLUSIONS The only other early author (apart from the disputed Josephus) to mention James before the close of the second century C.E. is Hegesippus (cf. Fragments from the Acts of the Church; Concerning the Martyrdom of James, the Brother of the Lord, from Book 5), who as early as c. 165 - 175 C.E. tells his reader in great detail that James (as brother of the Lord) was hurled from the top of the Temple and then because he survived this attempt on his life he was then summarily stoned to death. Hegesippus also tells us that this happened immediately before the destruction of the Temple by Vespasian and as such it would point to a date of c. 68 - 70 C.E.If this account is in any way accurate it means that the JP is in direct contradiction to both the date as well as the manner and circumstances of James’ death (The JP states that James was stoned along with “others” after due trial and sentencing by a high priest).The issue is further compounded by the fact that, by the fourth and fifth centuries it was more normal for the mainstream church to defer from referring to Jesus as having flesh and blood brothers. In this regard, it will be recalled that in his DVI, 2 Jerome (c. 347 – 420 C.E.) maintains that James was Jesus’ cousin and the biological son of Mary of Cleophas. Jerome stresses that James was not the son of Joseph by another wife.Lastly, if one needs the name of the chief suspect for this interpolation, Origen is certainly the most likely candidate. Although, in his Cels. II, 22, he makes it clear that he thinks that the death of Jesus was the ultimate cause for the destruction of the Temple, he repeatedly makes mention of Josephus’ reference to James in his many writings. In these contexts, he falsely records Josephus as blaming the death of James for the destruction of Jerusalem and as has been clearly shown, Origen recurrently employs the almost identical phraseology as found in the JP today.——————————————————
MY OWN CONCLUSION: Origen said himself that Josephus hated the term ‘Christ’ in relation to Jesus. I don’t believe the term existed in his copy. I believe the interpolater was of Origen school and simply lifted the phrase, “the brother of Jesus, who was called Christ” from Origen’s writings.——————————————————
Footnotes[A] Passage from Antiquitates Judaicae20.9.1/ 197 - 203 (James Passage)“And now Caesar, upon hearing the death of Festus, sent Albinus into Judea, as procurator. But the king deprived Joseph of the high priesthood, and bestowed the succession to that dignity on the son of Ananus, who was also himself called Ananus. Now the report goes that this eldest Ananus proved a most fortunate man; for he had five sons who had all performed the office of a high priest to God, and who had himself enjoyed that dignity a long time formerly, which had never happened to any other of our high priests. But this younger Ananus, who, as we have told you already, took the high priesthood, was a bold man in his temper, and very insolent; he was also of the sect of the Sadducees, who are very rigid in judging offenders, above all the rest of the Jews, as we have already observed; when, therefore, Ananus was of this disposition, he thought he had now a proper opportunity. Festus was now dead, and Albinus was but upon the road; so he assembled the sanhedrin of judges, and brought before them the brother of Jesus, who was called Christ, whose name was James, and some others; and when he had formed an accusation against them as breakers of the law, he delivered them to be stoned: but as for those who seemed the most equitable of the citizens, and such as were the most uneasy at the breach of the laws, they disliked what was done; they also sent to the king, desiring him to send to Ananus that he should act so no more, for that what he had already done was not to be justified; nay, some of them went also to meet Albinus, as he was upon his journey from Alexandria, and informed him that it was not lawful for Ananus to assemble a sanhedrin without his consent. Whereupon Albinus complied with what they said, and wrote in anger to Ananus, and threatened that he would bring him to punishment for what he had done; on which king Agrippa took the high priesthood from him, when he had ruled but three months, and made Jesus, the son of Damneus, high priest.”[B] Passage from the Antiquitates Judaicae18.3.3/ 63 – 64.( better known as the Testimonium Flavian or TF).“Now there was about this time Jesus, a wise man, if it be lawful to call him a man; for he was a doer of wonderful works, a teacher of such men as receive the truth with pleasure. He drew over to him both many of the Jews and many of the Gentiles. He was the Christ. And when Pilate, at the suggestion of the principal men amongst us, had condemned him to the cross, those that loved him at the first did not forsake him; for he appeared to them alive again the third day; as the divine prophets had foretold these and ten thousand other wonderful things concerning him. And the tribe of Christians, so named from him, are not extinct at this day.”
——————————————————— [1] https://chs.harvard.edu/CHS/article/display/5871.5-a-eusebian-reading-of-the-testimonium-flavianum-ken-olson
[2] http://khazarzar.skeptik.net/books/pines01.pdf
[3] http://hypotyposeis.org/weblog/2004/08/a-pre-eusebian-witness-to-the-testimonium.html
[4] http://khazarzar.skeptik.net/books/whealey1.pdf
[5] https://dspace.nwu.ac.za/bitstream/handle/10394/14213/Allen_NPL.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y ——————————————————— P.14 from Shlomo Pines book "An Arabic Version of the Testimonium Flavianum and its lmplications".
submitted by Belgooly1 to AcademicBiblical [link] [comments]


2019.10.03 01:11 Benkine90 Foyer pour personnes agées

Ceci est mon premier post, et je tiens à vous partager mon histoire qui à eu lieu il y a 7ans.
A cette époque j’étais dans un cursus d'école de kinésithérapie sur Paris.
Pour subvenir à mes besoins étudiants j'ai, comme beaucoup d'autre essayé de trouver un petit job. Motivé par mes parents qui connaissaient le milieu des personnes âgées, ils m'ont indiqué qu'un foyer pour personnes âgées cherchait un nouveau gardien de nuit pour effectuer les rondes et assurer le secours des personnes ayant par exemple, chuté dans leur domicile. J'ai donc fait une demande auprès de la mairie et j'ai été pris. Pour moi c’était le bonheur, avec ce Job j’acquérais mon autonomie ultime puisqu'en plus d'un salaire pas dégueux, j'avais le droit à un appartement de fonction.
J'ai donc été formé succinctement pour m'apprendre à effectuer la routine d'un gardien de nuit, à savoir :
fermer le portail, fermer le salon, les cuisines, sortir les poubelles et fermer le second portail et tenir le carnet de nuit ou l'on recense les faits inhabituels des rondes des étages effectuées toutes les 3h durant la nuit.
Dans ma loge, située au 2nd étage sur les 3 du bâtiment, j'avais une sonnerie qui permettait aux gens en détresse de m’appeler en cas de chute ou tout autre urgence. En cas de signal je devais noter l'heure de la sonnerie, l'heure d'intervention, le nom, le numéro de chambre, l'objet du signalement et l'heure de fin d'intervention. Bref l'historique des appels de nuit. Le seul inconvénient c'est que pour déterminer l'endroit d'où provenait la sonnerie, il fallait redescendre mes deux étages pour me rendre au central (RDC) afin de déterminer quel appartement nécessitait une assistance.
Pour ce poste nous étions deux, on exerçait une semaine sur deux et nos horaires de prise de garde étaient 18h->8h. Dans ce laps de temps nous avions obligation d’être astreint à domicile (on ne quitte pas la garde). Vue l'astreinte, et vu que nous habitions tous les deux au sein de l'établissement (lui au RDC moi au 2nd), nous nous étions mis d'accord pour nous remplacer en cas de problème (pour moi c'était les partiels pour lui la nécessité de voir sa famille).
Bref tout s'est bien passé mais de temps en temps j'avais de fausses alertes, une sonnerie qui n'allumait aucune lumière au central. La première fois je suis allé voir mon collègue (au beau milieu de la nuit alors qu'il n'était pas de garde), il a eu la gentillesse de me dire que ça arrivait parfois et que c'était surement un bug dans le logiciel de la machine d'appel.
Bien qu'on m'ait assuré qu'il s'agissait d'un bug, je décidais de le répertorier dans mon carnet de nuit.
Quelques semaines ont passées avec ce bug qui revenait 1 nuit /4 environ.
Pendant presque 4mois je notais religieusement tous ces bugs. On ne m'a jamais rien dit, et un jour la patronne du foyer m'a pris à part et m'a demandé ce que signifiaient les "signal sans objet (Bug)" notés dans le carnet. Je lui ai expliqué, et m'a clairement fait comprendre qu'elle n'avait aucune idée d'où ça pouvait provenir mais qu'elle allait y remédier.
Des techniciens sont intervenus mais rien à signaler et les bugs ont continués.
Après cette intervention, mon collègue est venu vers moi et m'a demandé avec insistance de ne plus en parler sur le carnet.
Bref je ne notais plus les fausses alertes, mais sur mes post-its d'étudiant je notais juste les heures/dates où elles survenaient.
Au fil du temps j'ai remarqué également quelque chose qui me saoulait c'est que le voisin du dessus prenait des bains interminables et vu le bruit, il se croyait à la piscine... Bref le jour où ça m'a vraiment chatouillé je l'ai inscrit dans le carnet -> "4h06 Chambre 301 prend un bain à une heure inappropriée"
Le lendemain la coordinatrice du foyer m'a pris à part et m'a signalé qu'il y allait avoir une vérification de ma loge pour recherche de stup/alcool motivée par des propos incohérents sur le carnet de garde.
J'ai eu le droit à la fouille de l'appartement sans succès. J'ai quand même demandé qu'est ce qui était incohérent et on m'a dit que c’était mon histoire de baignoire et de mon histoire de fausse alerte. J'aurais pu m'en douter, mais je n'y avait jamais fais plus attention que ça, c'est que les locataires faisaient tous appel à des aides-ménagère pour leur toilette... Sans compter qu'au dessus de mon appartement il y avait un appartement condamné. J'ai donc demandé ce qu'il y avait avant dans cette salle condamnée et s'il n'y avait pas d'autres accès.
La coordinatrice, la chef d’établissement et moi même sommes allé ouvrir la pièce condamnée (avec la clef qui n'était détenue que par la chef d'établissement) pour y constater qu'il s'agissait en réalité de la seule pièce qui comportait une baignoire (ancien appartement qui servait au coiffeupodologue/infirmier pour y pratiquer leur métier). Et lorsqu'on s'est approché de la baignoire, il y avait encore quelques gouttes déposées sur les bords, aucune fuite au plafond bref nous nous somme regardé avec effroi constatant qu'il y avait effectivement quelqu'un qui s’était servi de cette baignoire récemment.
Lorsque nous nous sommes séparé c’était l'heure pour moi de prendre ma garde.
J'ai cogité toute la nuit sans prendre mes pauses sieste habituelles et j'ai essayé de trouver les liens possibles, jusqu'à ce que je me rende compte que chaque fois que j'entendais les fausses alertes c’était le lendemain du jour où j'entendais la baignoire se remplir. J'ai gardé ça pour moi et j'ai pris sur moi de piquer la clef de la chef d'établissement le lendemain du soir où j'entendais la baignoire se remplir.
J'ai donc veillé au grain jusqu’à entendre cette satanée sonnerie, à ce moment là je n'ai pas pris le temps de descendre vérifier s'il s'agissait ou non de d'une fausse alerte, et je suis monté à l'étage, j'ai couru dans le couloir lumières éteintes, à peine éclairé par la lumière de la lune qui perçait par de la fenêtre du fond, au beau milieu du couloir j'ai étais stoppé net par quelqu'un, par réflexe je me suis excusé et j'ai appuyé sur le bouton de la minuterie qui était alors à porté de bras. Lorsque la lumière s'est allumée, il n'y avait rien que ce soit devant ou derrière moi et pourtant j'ai faillit tomber tellement le choc que j'ai reçus était fort. Tremblant je me suis approché du bout du couloir, et la porte était ouverte alors que je l'avais vu fermée à clef quelques jours avant. Je suis alors entré pour constater que la pièce disposait effectivement d'une sonnette non répertoriée sur le tableau du RDC et fonctionnelle (mon appartement étant juste en dessous, j'entendais la sonnerie de mon appartement de là où j'étais).
Chamboulé et insomniaque depuis cette histoire, j'en ai parlé autour de moi et on m'a conseillé de simplement appliquer la même stratégie que dans beaucoup de films c'est à dire, soit filmer (mais quand on est étudiant on a pas assez d'argent pour mettre de la sauce dans ses pâtes donc pour installer une go-pro...),soit identifier s'il s'agit d'un fantôme ou d'un humain, du coup j'ai opté pour la solution mettre de la farine derrière la porte de l'appartement et un peu partout dans l'appartement pour finalement voir s'il s'agit de quelqu'un ou de quelque-chose...
Le jour du bain vain et je décidais d'y aller le lendemain matin vers 6h, avec comme arme une réplique de katana (non coupant donc). En m'y rendant je tremblais encore, arrivé à la porte, j'ai ouvert la porte et constatais qu'il y 'avait 2 types d'empreintes bien distinctes, des pieds nus et des chaussures type rando.
Je ne savais que faire et me disant que je pourrais quoi qu'il arrive assurer mon poste depuis la chambre du dessus, le lendemain, je décidais de m'enfermer dans la chambre, vers l'heure tardive ou retenti habituellement la sonnerie, proche de la sonnette, tout en gardant ma réplique de katana au plus proche de moi. Je somnolais lorsque le tintement de la sonnette se faisait entendre. Près de moi rien... je me suis donc levé, pensant à une vraie alerte, je descends, lâche mon katana dans les escaliers au 2eme, arrive au RDC, et entends une porte claquer derrière moi. Si j'avais dû deviner laquelle c'était, j'aurais misé sur la porte de l'appartement de mon collègue mais j'en étais pas sûr. Je vais donc voir le tableau du RDC, et rien, fausse alerte...
Ça m'a rendu fou... J'ai donc repensé à cette porte qui avait claqué quand je suis redescendu, je me suis demandé si mon collègue ne voulais pas se jouer de moi, car il portait des chaussures type Timberland avec une semelle qui pouvait correspondre.
Et sachant les indices que j'avais, les chaussures et les pieds nus (qui n’étaient pas de la même pointure) , les portes qui claquent etc. j'ai voulu investiguer sur ses semaines de garde. J'ai donc fais de mon QG la chambre du 3ème.
Le premier jour, rien à signaler à part que je me suis ennuyé comme jamais. Mais le lendemain j'entendais la serrure s'ouvrir, la lumière percer depuis la porte, et mon collègue entrer dans la chambre. Dès que le bruit de serrure s'est fait entendre j'ai coupé mon téléphone, j'étais donc dans l’obscurité la plus totale, dans un recoin où la seule chose perceptible était la lumière provenant de la fenêtre du couloir lors de l'ouverture de la porte. Il est entré avec un résident qui, lorsqu'il est passé près de moi, sentait l'alcool de manière pestilentielle.
Je suis resté un moment pour observer du coin de l’œil, et sauf le robinet ouvert en grand, je n'entendais aucune parole que ce soit de mon collègue ou de la personne qui l'accompagnait. Je décidais de quitter discrètement l'appartement et de me mettre à l'autre bout du couloir pour filmer mon collègue avec mon téléphone lorsqu'il sortira de l'appartement.
Il est sorti seul et a fermé l'appartement avec un double des clefs. Je l'ai interpelé et lui ai donc demandé de me rendre des comptes et pourquoi il enfermait le résident dans la chambre. Et il m'a assuré qu'il n'y avait personne dans l'appartement, qu'il avait simplement fait un double de clef pour profiter de la baignoire parce qu'il n'a qu'une douche dans sa chambre, qu'il s'excusait de m'avoir fais psychoter dans mon coin. Et je lui ai fais étalage de tout ce que je savais, les empreintes de pieds, l'odeur d'alcool, la relation entre le bruit du bain avec la sonnerie le lendemain.
Et bien que réticent il a bien voulu rouvrir la porte, et lorsqu'il l'a rouverte, nous étions tous les deux devant, et j'étais dans l’entrebâillement. A peine ouverte, je me suis fais renverser, et lui repoussé contre le mur et sur le passage une odeur d'alcool forte mais, en pleine lumière, rien de visible alors que le couloir est assez étroit et qu'il n'y a nulle part ou se cacher.
J'ai eu peur comme jamais, et mon collègue s'est excusé et est reparti sans que je n'ai pus dire un seul mot tellement je ne comprenais pas ce qui venais de se passer.
La semaine suivante j'étais viré pour vole dans le bureau de la chef d’établissement. Et bien que je quittais un poste en or selon moi ( aux vus des avantages qu'il proposait ( pas de loyer, et un joli chèque en fin de mois )) j'étais soulagé de sortir de cet enfer d’incompréhension et de peur et encore aujourd'hui je ne saurais dire ce qui se passe dans cet établissement, et rien que le fait d'y penser me glace le sang...
submitted by Benkine90 to france [link] [comments]


2019.07.16 05:18 thecriclover99 Guru Purnima or Guru Poornima (Hindu Festival celebrating our teachers)

Our favorite GURU BHAJANS from bhajan:

  1. Satguru Tumhare Pyar Ne - Gitanjali Rai
  2. Gurudeva Tava - Roshni Kaul
  3. Aao Gurudeva - O.S. Arun

What is Guru Purnima or Guru Poornima?

Why celebrate Guru Purnima?

How to observe Guru Purnima?

submitted by thecriclover99 to bhajan [link] [comments]


2019.07.15 20:35 Lesime Meet-up Miribel Jonage 2.0

Yo à tous !
Il a un peu traîné, mais il est là ! Le meetup Miribel de l'été dernier était super cool, du coup on recommence cette année !

On pourrait retourner au même endroit que la dernière fois, malgré la pente on était plutôt tranquille. Pour l'instant l'heure est au Doodle !

Les étapes, comme l'année passée :
1/ Choix dans la date
2/ Recenser les moyens de transport utilisables
3/ Coordonner nourriture & boissons
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Étape 1 :

Voici le lien du Doodle. Tous les week-ends d'Août et le premier de Septembre sont indiqués. https://doodle.com/poll/phdibhbqf29kh7xu
Je fermerai le doodle vendredi prochain, soit le 26 Juillet !

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Étape 2 & 3 :

Beaucoup de participations pour ce doodle ! La date favorite est celle du Samedi 7 Septembre. Comme c'est assez loin et que tout le monde n'est pas disponible, j'ai décidé de conserver aussi celle du Dimanche 18 Août ! Ce qui fait 2 meetups Miribel ! Pour deux fois plus de bonne humeur
Pour la date du Dimanche 18 Août, voici le tableau d'organisation :
https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1p1Tia4U84c9xic_b1yIea-YIP_rz557UrFYSxFDDlCU/edit#gid=0

Le tableau pour la date du 7 septembre est maintenant en ligne :

https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1O8aItW62LlJRAhvx5xcz3NY3XNC57M4nM6kAqHFajH4/edit?usp=sharing
Pour l'instant le lieu indiqué est celui de l'année dernière. Du repérage sera peut être fait entre temps pour trouver un meilleur emplacement. Le message sera édité le cas échéant.
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Compte rendu :

Après un premier meetup annulé à cause de la météo, nous avons pu réaliser celui là sans souci ! La météo était de notre côté, il faisait bon (pas hyper chaud mais on pouvait rester en tshirt). Certains ont eu le courage de se baigner.
Nous sommes arrivés entre 12h et 12h30, nous étions 9, et avons discuté puis bien mangé jusqu'à 14h. Nous avons eu le droit à du bon taboulé, du bon fromage (avec 30 min d'attente), un cake écrasé, des club truite et autres (y'a beaucoup trop de détails).
Le reste de l'aprem a tourné aux jeux de société et à la discussion. dClauzel a profité de l'eau encore un moment pendant qu'on jouait.
Deux sont partis vers 17h, 3 vers 18h et le reste peu après. Chacun est rentré chez lui sain et sauf.
C'était un bon meetup ! Merci à tous les participants !
submitted by Lesime to Lyon [link] [comments]


2019.05.27 14:32 OrzBlueFog Summer of r/Canada: Run-Up to Canada Day & 500,000 Subscriber Cultural Celebration!

Good morning, Canada!
Today we mark two approaching events: the arrival of summer and a significant milestone in the growth of this community – half a million subscribers! To put that number into perspective, here are some interesting statistics:
The subreddit itself, however, is not the focus OF this subreddit – Canada is! Thanks to the fortuitous timing of our 500,000th subscriber close to July 1 this post is to announce a celebration of all things Canadian between now and the week of Canada Day itself, divided up into the following themes:
Our rules on image content, audio/video content, and general information links will be relaxed for submissions relevant to the above topics during those times. While we otherwise welcome politics as a topic for discussion in this subreddit for purposes of this celebration we ask for no contemporary political content in the submissions along these themes (separate news, political, and opinion submissions are still welcome).
We also ask users to refrain from ‘gatekeeping’ or being rude/combative about what someone else chooses to submit – the theme of this is supposed to be a celebration, one of positivity, and of community, sharing the history and wide range of cultural experiences from coast to coast to coast without trying to exclude or divide. Take this as perhaps a bit of a diversification from the near-constant politics we have on this subreddit (and will no doubt have much more of as the election draws near) and a chance to connect on a human level – perhaps with those whose politics you may not otherwise agree with – as fellow Canadians.
All posts in the above theme will be asked to include a specific text tag in the submission. This will enable them to be automatically flaired as part of this celebration. We will use this to create filters for this content for use by users who wish to filter it out for any reason.
A sincere thank you to all of you who have chosen to be part of this community! Please keep on this topic here & save all your content in the above categories for the weeks above.

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Bonjour, Canada!
Nous marquons aujourd’hui deux événements imminents: l’arrivée de l’été et une étape importante dans la croissance de cette communauté: un demi-million d’abonnés! Pour mettre ce chiffre en perspective, voici quelques statistiques intéressantes:
Le subreddit lui-même, cependant, n’est pas au centre de ce subreddit - le Canada l’est! Grâce à la date fortuite de notre 500 000e abonné près du 1er juillet, ce message consiste à annoncer une célébration de tout ce qui est canadien d'ici la semaine de la fête du Canada, divisée en trois thèmes:
Nos règles sur le contenu des images, le contenu audio / vidéo et les liens d’informations générales seront assouplies pour les soumissions relatives aux sujets susmentionnés pendant ces périodes. Bien que nous fassions autrement bon accueil à la politique comme sujet de discussion dans ce sous-chapiteau aux fins de cette célébration, nous ne demandons aucun contenu politique contemporain dans les soumissions portant sur ces thèmes (à part cette célébration, les nouvelles, les opinions politiques et les opinions sont toujours les bienvenues).
Nous demandons également aux utilisateurs de s’abstenir de "contrôler" ou d’être impoli / combatif à propos de ce qu’une autre personne choisit de soumettre - le thème de celui-ci est censé être une célébration, une question de positivité, et de communauté, partageant l’histoire et le large éventail de cultures. expériences d’un océan à l’autre sans chercher à exclure ou à diviser. Considérez ceci comme une sorte de diversification par rapport à la politique quasi constante que nous avons sur ce subreddit (et nous en aurons sûrement beaucoup plus à mesure que les élections approchent) et une chance de nouer des relations sur le plan humain - peut-être avec ceux dont la politique vous ne pouvez pas être autrement d'accord avec - comme concitoyens canadiens
Tous les articles du thème ci-dessus seront invités à inclure une balise de texte spécifique dans la soumission. Cela leur permettra d'être automatiquement associés à cette célébration. Nous allons utiliser cela pour créer des filtres pour ce contenu à utiliser par les utilisateurs qui souhaitent le filtrer pour une raison quelconque.
Un merci sincère à vous tous qui avez choisi de faire partie de cette communauté! Veuillez conserver toutes les soumissions sur ces sujets pour la semaine concernée.
submitted by OrzBlueFog to canada [link] [comments]


2019.04.23 21:49 JohannGoethe Dan Brown’s “pagan theft thesis” from The Da Vinci Code (2003)

"I thought Constantine was a Christian," Sophie said.
"Hardly," Teabing scoffed. "He was a lifelong pagan who was baptized on his deathbed, too weak to protest. In Constantine's day, Rome's official religion [see: state religion] was sun worship—the cult of Sol Invictus, or the Invincible Sun—and Constantine was its head priest. Unfortunately for him, a growing religious turmoil was gripping Rome. Three centuries after the crucifixion of Jesus Christ, Christ's followers [see: silent historians problem] had multiplied exponentially. Christians and pagans began warring, and the conflict grew to such proportions that it threatened to rend Rome in two. Constantine decided something had to be done. In 325 AD, he decided to unify Rome under a single religion. Christianity."
Sophie was surprised. "Why would a pagan emperor choose Christianity as the official religion?"
Teabing chuckled. "Constantine was a very good businessman. He could see that Christianity was on the rise, and he simply backed the winning horse. Historians still marvel at the brilliance with which Constantine converted the sun-worshipping pagans to Christianity. By fusing pagan symbols, dates, and rituals into the growing Christian tradition, he created a kind of hybrid religion that was acceptable to both parties."
"Transmogrification," Langdon said. 'The vestiges of pagan religion in Christian symbology are undeniable. Egyptian sun disks became the halos of Catholic saints. Pictograms of Isis nursing her miraculously conceived son Horus became the blueprint for our modem images of the Virgin Mary nursing Baby Jesus. And virtually all the elements of the Catholic ritual—the miter, the altar, the doxology, and communion, the act of "God-eating" [see: Osiris cakes and transubstantiation] — were taken directly from earlier pagan mystery religions."
Teabing groaned. "Don't get a symbologist started on Christian icons. Nothing in Christianity is original. The pre-Christian god Mithras—called the 'son of god' and the "light of the world"—was born on December 25, died, was buried in a rock tomb, and then resurrected in three days. By the way, December 25 is also the birthday of Osiris, Adonis, and Dionysus. The newborn Krishna was presented with gold, frankincense, and myrrh. Even Christianity's weekly holy day was stolen from the pagans"
"What do you mean?"
"Originally," Langdon said, "Christianity honored the Jewish Sabbath of Saturday, but Constantine shifted it to coincide with the pagan's veneration day of the sun." He pawed, grinning. "To this day, most churchgoers attend services on Sunday morning with no idea that they are there on account of the pagan sun god's weekly tribute—Sun-day."
Sophie's head was spinning. And all of this relates to the Grail?"
"Indeed," Teabing said. "Stay with me. During this fusion of religions, Constantine needed to strengthen the new Christian tradition, and held a famous ecumenical gathering known as the Council of Nicaea."
Sophie had heard of it only insofar as its being the birthplace of the Nicene Creed.
"At this gathering," Teabing said, "many aspects of Christianity were debated and voted upon—the date of Easter, the role of the bishops, the administration of sacraments, and, of course, the divinity of Jesus."
"I don't follow. His divinity?"
"My dear," Teabing declared, "until that moment in history, Jesus was viewed by His followers [see: silent historians problem] as a mortal prophet . . . a great and powerful man, but a man nonetheless. A mortal."
"Not the 'son of god'?"
"Right," Teabing said. "Jesus' establishment as 'the Son of God' was officially proposed and voted on by the Council of Nicaea."
"Hold on. You're saying Jesus' divinity was the result of a vote?'
"A relatively close vote at that," Teabing added. "Nonetheless, establishing Christ's divinity was critical to the further unification of the Roman empire [see: Roman recension] and to the new Vatican power base. By officially endorsing Jesus as the 'son of god', Constantine turned Jesus into a deity who existed beyond the scope of the human world, an entity whose power was unchallengeable. This not only precluded further pagan challenges to Christianity, but now the followers of Christ were able to redeem themselves only via the established sacred channel—the Roman Catholic Church."
Sophie glanced at Langdon, and he gave her a soft nod of concurrence.
"It was all about power," Teabing continued. "Christ as Messiah was critical to the functioning of Church and state. Many scholars claim that the early Church literally stole Jesus from His original followers, hijacking his human message, shrouding it in an impenetrable cloak of divinity, and using it to expand their own power. I’ve written several books on the topic.”
submitted by JohannGoethe to ReligioMythology [link] [comments]


2019.02.17 06:38 Break-The-Walls Ignatius of Antioch Proves Jesus is God

Background

Nothing is known of Ignatius' life apart from what may be inferred internally from his letters, except from late spurious traditions. It is said Ignatius converted) to Christianity at a young age. Tradition identifies Ignatius, along with his friend Polycarp, as disciples of John the Apostle. Later in his life, Ignatius was chosen to serve as Bishop of Antioch; the fourth-century Church historian Eusebius writes that Ignatius succeeded Evodius. Theodoret of Cyrrhus claimed that the Apostle Peter himself left directions that Ignatius be appointed to the episcopal see of Antioch. Ignatius called himself Theophorus (God Bearer). A tradition arose that he was one of the children whom Jesus Christ took in his arms and blessed, although if he was born around 35 AD, as supposed, then Christ had ascended approximately five years prior.
Ignatius' own writings mention his arrest by the authorities and travel to Rome to face trial:
From Syria even to Rome I fight with wild beasts, by land and sea, by night and by day, being bound amidst ten leopards, even a company of soldiers, who only grow worse when they are kindly treated.— Ignatius to the Romans, 5.
Ignatius' transfer to Rome is regarded by scholars as unusual, since those persecuted as Christians would be expected to be punished locally. If he were a Roman citizen, he could have appealed to the emperor, but then would usually have been beheaded rather than tortured. Allen Brent has suggested that Ignatius was involved in conflict with other Christians and was executed for the capital crime of disturbing the peace.
During the journey to Rome, Ignatius and his entourage of soldiers made a number of stops in Asia Minor. Along the route Ignatius wrote six letters to the churches in the region and one to a fellow bishop, Polycarp, bishop of Smyrna. In his Chronicle, Eusebius gives the date of Ignatius's death as AA 2124 (2124 years after Abraham), i.e. the 11th year of Trajan's reign, AD 108. Ignatius himself wrote that he would be thrown to the beasts, and in the fourth century Eusebius reports tradition that this came to pass, which is then repeated by Jerome, who is the first to explicitly mention "Lions". John Chrysostom is the first to allude to the Colosseum as the place of Ignatius' martyrdom. Contemporary scholars are not clear that any of these authors had sources other than Ignatius' own writings.
After Ignatius' martyrdom in the Circus Maximus his remains were carried back to Antioch by his companions. The reputed remains of Ignatius were moved by the Emperor Theodosius II to the Tychaeum, or Temple of Tyche, which had been converted into a church dedicated to Ignatius. In 637 the relics were transferred to the Basilica di San Clemente in Rome.

Teachings

The Letters of Ignatius
The following compares the Short and Long Recensions of Ignatius' letters. Excerpts for the Short vs. Long Recensions taken from the Roberts-Donaldson English Translations of the Short and Long Recensions, emphasis mine. The indented version is the Long Recension. Especially compare the bolded words between the Short and Long Recensions. The differences are quite revealing.
To the Ephesians
Ignatius, who is also called Theophorus, to the Church which is at Ephesus... being united and elected through the true passion by the will of the Father, and Jesus Christ, our God.Ignatius, who is also called Theophorus, to the Church which is at Ephesus... being united and elected through the true passion by the will of God the Father, and of our Lord Jesus Christ our Saviour.
I have become acquainted with your name, much-beloved in God, which ye have acquired by the habit of righteousness, according to the faith and love in Jesus Christ our Saviour. Being the followers of God, and stirring up yourselves by the blood of God (I).I have become acquainted with your greatly-desired name in God, which ye have acquired by the habit of righteousness, according to the faith and love in Christ Jesus our Saviour. Being the followers of the love of God towards man, and stirring up yourselves by the blood of Christ. (I)
There is one Physician who is possessed both of flesh and spirit, both made and not made, God existing in flesh, true life in death, both of Mary and of God; first passible and then impassible, even Jesus Christ our Lord. (VII).But our Physician is the Only true God, the unbegotten and unapproachable, the Lord of all, the Father and Begetter of the only-begotten Son. We have also as a Physician the Lord our God, Jesus the Christ, the only-begotten Son and Word, before time began, but who afterwards became also man, of Mary the virgin. For "the Word was made flesh." Being incorporeal, He was in the body, being impassible, He was in a passible body, being immortal, He was in a mortal body, being life, He became subject to corruption, that He might free our souls from death and corruption, and heal them, and might restore them to health, when they were diseased with ungodliness and wicked lusts. (VII).
For our God, Jesus Christ, was, according to the appointment of God, conceived in the womb by Mary, of the seed of David, but by the Holy Ghost. He was born and baptized, that by His passion He might purify the water. (XVIII).For the Son of God, who was begotten before time began, and established all things according to the will of the Father, He was conceived in the womb of Mary, according to the appointment of God, of the seed of David, and by the Holy Ghost. For [it]says, "Behold, a virgin shall be with child, and shall bring forth a son, and He shall be called Immanuel." He was born and was baptized by John, that He might ratify the institution committed to that prophet. (XVIII).
Hence every kind of magic was destroyed, and every bond of wickedness disappeared, ignorance was removed, and the old kingdom abolished, God Himself being manifested in human form for the renewal of eternal life. And now that took a beginning which had been prepared by God. Henceforth all things were in a state of tumult, because He meditated the abolition of death. (XIX).God being manifested as a man, and man displaying power as God. But neither was the former a mere imagination, nor did the second imply a bare humanity, but the one was absolutely true, and the other an economical arrangement. Now that received a beginning which was perfected by God. Henceforth all things were in a state of tumult, because He meditated the abolition of death. (XIX).
Jesus Christ, in His faith and in His love, in His suffering and in His resurrection. Especially if the Lord make known to me that ye come together man by man in common through grace, individually, in one faith, and in Jesus Christ, who was of the seed of David according to the flesh, being both the Son of man and the Son of God. (XX).The faith of Jesus Christ, and in His love, in His passion, and in His resurrection. Do ye all come together in common, and individually, through grace, in one faith of God the Father, and of Jesus Christ His only-begotten Son, and "the first-born of every creature," but of the seed of David according to the flesh. (XX).
To the Magnesians
The ministry of Jesus Christ, who was with the Father before the beginning of time, and in the end was revealed. (VI).The ministry of Jesus Christ. He, being begotten by the Father before the beginning of time, was God the Word, the only-begotten Son, and remains the same for ever; for "of His kingdom there shall be no end. (VI).
Do ye therefore all run together as into one temple of God, as to one altar, as to one Jesus Christ, who came forth from one Father, and is with and has gone to one.(VII).Do ye all, as one man, run together into the temple of God, as unto one altar, to one Jesus Christ, the High Priest of the unbegotten God. (VII).
There is one God, who has manifested Himself by Jesus Christ His Son, who is His eternal Word. (VIII).There is one God, the Almighty, who has manifested Himself by Jesus Christ His Son, who is His Word. (VIII).
Fare ye well in the harmony of God, ye who have obtained the inseparable Spirit, who is Jesus Christ. (XV).Fare ye well in harmony, ye who have obtained the inseparable Spirit, in Christ Jesus, by the will of God. (XV).
To the Trallians
Be on your guard, therefore, against such persons. And this will be the case with you if you are not puffed up, and continue in intimate union with Jesus Christ our God, and the bishop and the enactments of the apostles. (VII).
Be on your guard, therefore, against such persons, that ye admit not of a snare for your own souls. And act so that your life shall be without offence to all men, lest ye become as "a snare upon a watch-tower, and as a net which is spread out." For" he that does not heal himself in his own works, is the brother of him that destroys himself." If, therefore, ye also put away conceit, arrogance, disdain, and haughtiness, it will be your privilege to be inseparably united to God, for "He is nigh unto those that fear Him." And says He, "Upon whom will I look, but upon him that is humble and quiet, and that trembles at my words? " And do ye also reverence your bishop as Christ Himself, according as the blessed apostles have enjoined you. (VII).
To the Romans
Ignatius, who is also called Theophorus, to the Church which has obtained mercy, through the majesty of the Most High Father, and Jesus Christ, His only-begotten Son; the Church which is beloved and enlightened by the will of Him that willeth all things which are according to the love of Jesus Christ our God....I also salute in the name of Jesus Christ, the Son of the Father...abundance of happiness unblameably, in Jesus Christ our God.
Ignatius, who is also called Theophorus, to the Church which has obtained mercy, through the majesty of the Most High God the Father, and of Jesus Christ, His only-begotten Son; the Church which is sanctified and enlightened by the will of God, who formed all things that are according to the faith and love of Jesus Christ, our God and Saviour.... I also salute in the name of Almighty God, and of Jesus Christ His Son... abundance of happiness unblameably, in God, even the Father, and our Lord Jesus Christ.
"For the things which are seen are temporal, but the things which are not seen are eternal." For our God, Jesus Christ, now that He is with the Father, is all the more revealed [in His glory]. (III)."For the things which are seen are temporal, but the things which are not seen are eternal." The Christian is not the result of persuasion, but of power. When he is hated by the world, he is beloved of God.
I am the wheat of God, and let me be ground by the teeth of the wild beasts, that I may be found the pure bread of Christ. (IV).I am the wheat of God, and am ground by the teeth of the wild beasts, that I may be found the pure bread of God. (IV).
For what shall a man be profited, if he gain the whole world, but lose his own soul? " Him I seek, who died for us: Him I desire, who rose again for our sake. This is the gain which is laid up for me. Pardon me, brethren: do not hinder me from living, do not wish to keep me in a state of death; and while I desire to belong to God, do not ye give me over to the world. Suffer me to obtain pure light: when I have gone thither, I shall indeed be a man of God. Permit me to be an imitator of the passion of my God. (V).For what is a man profited, if he gain the whole world, but lose his own soul? "I long after the Lord, the Son of the true God and Father, also Jesus Christ. Him I seek, who died for us and rose again. Pardon me, brethren: do not hinder me in attaining to life; for Jesus is the life of believers. Do not wish to keep me in a state of death, for life without Christ is death. While I desire to belong to God, do not ye give me over to the world. Suffer me to obtain pure light: when I have gone thither, I shall indeed be a man of God. Permit me to be an imitator of the passion of Christ, my God. (V).
Remember in your prayers the Church in Syria, which now has God for its Shepherd, instead of me. Jesus Christ alone will oversee it. (IX).Remember in your prayers the Church which is in Syria, which, instead of me, has now for its Shepherd the Lord, who says, "I am the good Shepherd." And He alone will oversee it. (IX).
To the Philadelphians
[Missing]. (IV).Since, also, there is but one unbegotten Being, God, even the Father; and one only-begotten Son, God, the Word and man; and one Comforter, the Spirit of truth.... [be obedient to] the bishop to Christ, even as Christ to the Father. (IV).[Missing] (V).For there is one God of the Old and New Testament, "one Mediator between God and men. (V).
[Missing] (VI).If any one confesses Christ Jesus the Lord, but denies the God of the Law and of the prophets, saying that the Father of Christ is not the Maker of heaven and earth, he has not continued in the truth any more than his father the devil. (VI).
The priests indeed are good, but the High Priest is better; to whom the holy of holies has been committed, and who alone has been trusted with the secrets of God. He is the door of the Father, by which enter in Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, and the prophets, and the apostles, and the Church. All these have for their object the attaining to the unity of God. (IX).The priests indeed, and the ministers of the word, are good; but the High Priest is better, to whom the holy of holies has been committed, and who alone has been entrusted with the secrets of God. The ministering powers of God are good. The Comforter is holy, and the Word is holy, the Son of the Father, by whom He made all things, and exercises a providence over them all. This is the Way which leads to the Father, the Rock, the Defence, the Key, the Shepherd, the Sacrifice, the Door of knowledge, through which have entered Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, Moses and all the company of the prophets, and these pillars of the world, the apostles, and the spouse of Christ, on whose account He poured out His own blood, as her marriage portion, that He might redeem her. All these things tend towards the unity of the one and only true God. (IX).
To the Smyrneans
Ignatius, who is also called Theophorus, to the Church of God the Father, and of the beloved Jesus Christ.Ignatius, who is also called Theophorus, to the Church of God the most high Father and His beloved Son Jesus Christ.
Glorify God, even Jesus Christ, who has given you such wisdom....He was truly of the seed of David according to the flesh, and the Son of God according to the will and power of God; that He was truly born of a virgin, was baptized by John, in order that all righteousness might be fulfilled by Him; and was truly, under Pontius Pilate and Herod the tetrarch, nailed [to the cross] for us in His flesh. (I).Glorify the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who by Him has given you such wisdom...that He was the Son of God, "the first-born of every creature," God the Word, the only-begotten Son, and was of the seed of David according to the flesh, by the Virgin Mary; was baptized by John, that all righteousness might be fulfilled by Him; that He lived a life of holiness without sin, and was truly, under Pontius Pilate and Herod the tetrarch, nailed [to the cross] for us in His flesh. (I).
Ye have done well in receiving Philo and Rheus Agathopus as servants of Christ our God. (X).Ye have done well in receiving Philo, and Gaius, and Agathopus, who, being the servants of Christ. (X).
The following are excerpts taken from Ignatius' other letters that are extant only in one copy and belong with the collection known as the "Long Recension." He uses language to describe God very similar to Irenaeus.
I have learned that certain of the ministers of Satan have wished to disturb you, some of them asserting that Jesus was born [only] in appearance, was crucified in appearance, and died in appearance, others that He is not the Son the Creator, and others that He is Himself God over all. (To the Tarsians, II).
And that He who was born of a woman was the Son of God, and He that was crucified was "the first-born of every creature," and God the Word, who also created all things. For says the apostle, "There is one God, the Father, of whom are all things; and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things. And again, "For there is one God, and one Mediator between God and man, the man Christ Jesus (To the Tarsians, IV).
And that He Himself is not God over all, and the Father, but His Son, He says, "I ascend unto my Father and your Father, and to my God and your God. And again, "When all things shall be subjected unto Him, then shall He also Himself be subject unto Him that put all things under Him, that God may be all in all." Wherefore it is One [God] who put all things under, and who is all in all, and another [His Son] to whom they were subdued, who also Himself, along with all other things, becomes subject [to the former]. (To the Tarsians, V; cf. 1 Cor 15:24-28).
How could such a one be a mere man, receiving the beginning of His existence from Mary, and not rather God the Word, and the only-begotten Son? For "in the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God." And in another place, "The Lord created Me, the beginning of His ways, for His ways, for His works. Before the world did He found Me, and before all the hills did He beget Me. (To the Tarsians, VI).
For Moses, the faithful servant of God, when he said, "The Lord thy God is one Lord," and thus proclaimed that there was only one God, did also forthwith confess also our Lord [Jesus] when he said, "The Lord rained upon Sodom and Gomorrah fire and brimstone from the Lord." And again, "And God said, Let us make man after our image: and so God made man, after the image of God made He him." And further "In the image of God made He man." And that [the Son] was to be made man, he says, "A prophet shall the Lord [YAHWEH] raise up unto you of your brethren, like unto me." (To the Antiochians, II).
The prophets also, when they speak as in the person of God, [saying, ] "I am God, the first [of beings], and I am also the last,10 and besides Me there is no God,"11 concerning the Father of the universe, do also speak of our Lord Jesus Christ. "A Son," they say, has been given to us, on whose shoulder the government is from above; and His name is called the Angel of great counsel, Wonderful, Counsellor, the strong and mighty God."12 And concerning His incarnation, "Behold, a virgin shall be with Child, and shall bring forth a Son; and they shall call his name Immanuel. (To the Antiochians, III).
The Evangelists, too, when they declared that the one Father was the only true God, did not omit what concerned our Lord, but wrote: "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. The same was in the beginning with God. All things were made by Him, and without Him was not anything made that was made." And concerning the incarnation: "The Word," says, "became flesh, and dwelt among us." And again: "The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham." And those very apostles, who said "that there is one God," said also that "there is one Mediator between God and men." Nor were they ashamed of the incarnation and the passion. For what says "The man Christ Jesus, who gave Himself" for the life and salvation of the world. Whosoever, therefore, declares that there is but one God, only so as to take away the divinity of Christ, is a devil, and an enemy of all righteousness. He also that confesseth Christ, yet not as the Son of the Maker of the world, but of some other unknown being, different from Him whom the law and the prophets have proclaimed, this man is an instrument of the devil. And he that rejects the incarnation, and is ashamed of the cross for which I am in bonds, this man is antichrist. Moreover, he who affirms Christ to be a mere man is accursed, according to the prophet, since he puts not his trust in God, but in man. (To the Antiochians, IV-V).
May He who is alone unbegotten, keep you stedfast both in the spirit and in the flesh, through him who was begotten before time began. (To the Antiochians, XIV).
Ignatius, who is also called Theophorus, to Hero, the deacon of Christ, and the servant of God, a man honoured by God, and most dearly loved as well as esteemed, who carries Christ and the Spirit within him, and who is mine own son in faith and love: Grace, mercy, and peace from Almighty God, and from Christ Jesus our Lord, His only-begotten Son. (To Hero).
May I have joy of thee, my dear son, whose guardian may He be who is the only unbegotten God, and the Lord Jesus Christ! (To Hero, IV).
Ignatius, who is also called Theophorus, to her who has obtained mercy through the grace of the Most High God the Father, and Jesus Christ the Lord, who died for us. (To Maria at Neapolis, Near Zarbus).
As Paul admonished you. For if there is one God of the universe, the Father of Christ, "of whom are all things; " and one Lord Jesus Christ, our [Lord], "by whom are all things; " and also one Holy Spirit.... For "there is one Lord, one faith, one baptism; one God and Father of all, who is through all, and in all. (To the Philippians).
Ignatius, who is also called Theophorus, to her who has obtained mercy through the grace of the Most High God the Father, and Jesus Christ the Lord, who died for us. (To Maria at Neapolis, Near Zarbus).As Paul admonished you. For if there is one God of the universe, the Father of Christ, "of whom are all things; " and one Lord Jesus Christ, our [Lord], "by whom are all things; " and also one Holy Spirit.... For "there is one Lord, one faith, one baptism; one God and Father of all, who is through all, and in all. (To the Philippians).
The following is from the Long Recension. Notice how his language sounds typically apostolic:
There is then One God and Father, and not two or three, One who is, and there is no other besides Him, the only true One. For "the Lord [YAHWEH] thy God," saith, "is one Lord." And again, "Hath not one God created us? Have we not all one Father? And there is also one Son, God the Word. For "the only-begotten Son," saith, "who is in the bosom of the Father." And again, "One Lord Jesus Christ." And in another place, "What is His name, or what His Son's name, that we may know? " And there is also one Paraclete. For "there is also," saith, "one Spirit," since "we have been called in one hope of our calling." And again, "We have drunk of one Spirit," with what follows. And it is manifest that all these gifts "worketh one and the self-same Spirit." There are not then either three Fathers, or three Sons, or three Paracletes, but one Father, and one Son, and one Paraclete. Wherefore also the Lord, when He sent forth the apostles to make disciples of all nations, commanded them to "baptize in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit," not unto one having three names, nor into three who became incarnate, but into three [persons] possessed of equal honour [one name]. (To the Philippians, II).
I have learned that certain of the ministers of Satan have wished to disturb you, some of them asserting that Jesus was born [only] in appearance, was crucified in appearance, and died in appearance, others that He is not the Son the Creator, and others that He is Himself God over all. (To the Tarsians, II).
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